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Open AccessReview

Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Health Effects: A Review

1
Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
2
Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
3
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
4
Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042177
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
Particulate matter (PM) is a major factor contributing to air quality deterioration that enters the atmosphere as a consequence of various natural and anthropogenic activities. In PM, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a class of organic chemicals with at least two aromatic rings that are mainly directly emitted via the incomplete combustion of various organic materials. Numerous toxicological and epidemiological studies have proven adverse links between exposure to particulate matter-bound (PM-bound) PAHs and human health due to their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Among human exposure routes, inhalation is the main pathway regarding PM-bound PAHs in the atmosphere. Moreover, the concentrations of PM-bound PAHs differ among people, microenvironments and areas. Hence, understanding the behaviour of PM-bound PAHs in the atmosphere is crucial. However, because current techniques hardly monitor PAHs in real-time, timely feedback on PAHs including the characteristics of their concentration and composition, is not obtained via real-time analysis methods. Therefore, in this review, we summarize personal exposure, and indoor and outdoor PM-bound PAH concentrations for different participants, spaces, and cities worldwide in recent years. The main aims are to clarify the characteristics of PM-bound PAHs under different exposure conditions, in addition to the health effects and assessment methods of PAHs. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; personal exposure; indoor; outdoor; health effects particulate matter; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; personal exposure; indoor; outdoor; health effects
MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Xing, W.; Wang, Y.; Bai, P.; Zhang, L.; Hayakawa, K.; Toriba, A.; Tang, N. Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Health Effects: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2177. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042177

AMA Style

Yang L, Zhang H, Zhang X, Xing W, Wang Y, Bai P, Zhang L, Hayakawa K, Toriba A, Tang N. Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Health Effects: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2177. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042177

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Lu; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuan; Xing, Wanli; Wang, Yan; Bai, Pengchu; Zhang, Lulu; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning. 2021. "Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Health Effects: A Review" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 4: 2177. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042177

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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