Vinyl-Asbestos Floor Risk Exposure in Three Different Simulations
- Removal—it is mandatory for brittle materials and compact materials in the case of damages for more than 10% of its surface.
- Encapsulation—covering of the asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) with several layers of a specific encapsulation coating, producing a physical barrier between the contaminated matter and the external environment.
- Over coverage—occulting and sealing the ACMs by means of the physical barrier such as panels, walls or insulation.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Vinyl-Asbestos Characterization
2.2. Simulation Tests
- − Multigrip plier breakage to simulate when workers break the vinyl floor tiles while replacing them or sampling to verify the presence of asbestos.
- − Impact and drag simulation with crampon; the effect of a small stone fragment stuck in the sole of rubber shoes was reproduced by striking the vinyl floor with a crampon.
- − Abrasion using two different sandpaper grain sizes to simulate the smoothing of a floor where the portion of asbestos vinyl tiles sometimes rub together with glue remaining on the surface.
2.2.1. Sampling Simulation with Multigrip Plier Breakage in Dry Condition of Pieces of Vinyl Tile
2.2.2. Impact and Drag Simulation with Crampon in Dry Conditions
2.2.3. Abrasion Simulation Tests
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Multigrip Plier Breakage Results
3.2. Impact and Drag with Crampons Results
3.3. Abrasion Simulation Results
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Components||Parts by Weight: Range||Parts by Weight: Optimal Proportion||Particle Size Dimension (Mesh)|
|-fibrous fillers such as wood flour dispersed in plastic||<50|
|homopolymer vinyl chloride and copolymer||15–18|
|Sprayed coatings, lagging and insulations||Up to about 85% of asbestos (amosite, crocidolite) mainly amosite sprayed on steel bearing structures or other surfaces as thermal-acoustic insulators||High friability|
|Insulating pipes and boilers lagging||For pipe coatings, all types of asbestos, about 6–10%, usually mixed with calcium silicates. In cloths, felts and padding, in general, 100% of asbestos||High release potential in case of coating covering layer absent, not uniformed or deteriorated|
|Cardboard, paper and similar||Generally, only 100% chrysotile||Subjected to wear and tear due to their poorly compact structure|
|Tapes, cords and cloths||In the past, all types of asbestos were used. Later, only chrysotile||Possibility of fiber release when large quantities of material are stored|
|Asbestos cement products||Currently 10–15% of asbestos, usually chrysotile. Crocidolite and amosite can be found in some types of pipes and slabs||Possibility of fiber release when they are abraded, sawn, perforated or brushed, or if deteriorated|
|Bituminous and tar products, paper-backed vinyl tiles, vinyl floor tiles, PVC and plastic goods, coatings and paints, mastics, sealants and plaster||From 0.5 to 2% for mastics, sealants, adhesives, at 10–25% for floors and vinyl tiles||Unlikely release of fibers during normal use. Possibility of release of fibers if cut, abraded or perforated|
|Simulation Test||Vinyl Floor Tile Sample||Powder Produced from Abrasion (g)||Release of Asbestos Fibers (g)|
|Abrasion coarse-grain sandpaper||F||4.4||0.4|
|Abrasion fine-grain sandpaper||F||4||0.4|
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Zichella, L.; Baudana, F.; Zanetti, G.; Marini, P. Vinyl-Asbestos Floor Risk Exposure in Three Different Simulations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2073. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042073
Zichella L, Baudana F, Zanetti G, Marini P. Vinyl-Asbestos Floor Risk Exposure in Three Different Simulations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2073. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042073Chicago/Turabian Style
Zichella, Lorena, Fiorenza Baudana, Giovanna Zanetti, and Paola Marini. 2021. "Vinyl-Asbestos Floor Risk Exposure in Three Different Simulations" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2073. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042073