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Open AccessArticle

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic and Mental Health Status in the General Adult Population of Serbia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Višegradska 26, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovića 69, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
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Department of Children’s Healthcare, Community Health Center Petrovac na Mlavi, Moravska 2, 12300 Petrovac na Mlavi, Serbia
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Department of Pulmonology, University Clinical Hospital Center Zvezdara, Dimitrija Tucovića 161, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia
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Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Cardiology, University Clinical Hospital Center Zemun, Vukova 9, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Čika Ljubina Street 18–20, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041957
Received: 16 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 13 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
Since its outbreak, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. The Serbian government declared a state of emergency on 15 March 2020, implementing some of Europe’s strictest measures to combat the pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the mental health of the general adult Serbian population and to identify associated factors during the state of emergency and lockdown. Data were collected with a snowball sampling method between 23 March and 25 April 2020, by using an online questionnaire. Multiple ordinal regression was performed to establish the associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-estimated health status, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Out of 1057 participants included in the study, 28.9%, 36.9%, and 38.1% reported moderate to severe depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Uneasiness related to COVID-19 news, the feeling of helplessness, likeliness of impending death, and presence of COVID-19 symptoms were associated with higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Current smoking status was associated with a higher risk of depression and stress. Students had a significantly higher level of depression and stress, while older age was protective against anxiety and stress. Higher socioeconomic status was significantly associated with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; DASS-21; depression; anxiety; stress; mental health; Serbia; psychological impact; epidemic COVID-19; coronavirus; DASS-21; depression; anxiety; stress; mental health; Serbia; psychological impact; epidemic
MDPI and ACS Style

Vujčić, I.; Safiye, T.; Milikić, B.; Popović, E.; Dubljanin, D.; Dubljanin, E.; Dubljanin, J.; Čabarkapa, M. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic and Mental Health Status in the General Adult Population of Serbia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041957

AMA Style

Vujčić I, Safiye T, Milikić B, Popović E, Dubljanin D, Dubljanin E, Dubljanin J, Čabarkapa M. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic and Mental Health Status in the General Adult Population of Serbia: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041957

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vujčić, Isidora; Safiye, Teodora; Milikić, Bojana; Popović, Emina; Dubljanin, Draško; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Dubljanin, Jakša; Čabarkapa, Milanko. 2021. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic and Mental Health Status in the General Adult Population of Serbia: A Cross-Sectional Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 4: 1957. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041957

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