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Article

Dietary Quality in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Female Students in Germany: A Retrospective Study

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ZIEL-Institute for Food & Health, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
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Analytical Food Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
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Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DZ, UK
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Globalyze, Virgílio Malta 17-76, 17014-440 Bauru, Brazil
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Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DH, UK
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Quadram Bioscience Institute, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041888
Received: 24 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
Vegetarian diets have gained in popularity, especially among highly educated women, and are considered beneficial to health. Comparative studies assessing the diet of vegetarians against omnivores are rather limited and often provide ambivalent results. Therefore, this study examined the nutrient intake and nutritional quality of vegetarian and omnivorous diets in a group of 61 female students in Germany. Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using a validated graphical online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Differences in nutrient intakes were analyzed by Mann–Whitney-U-Tests. Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated for vegetarians exceeding dietary reference values (DRV) compared to omnivores. The overall nutritional quality was assessed using the Healthy-Eating-Index-2015 (HEI-2015). In omnivores, intakes of total energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-PUFA), cholesterol, sucrose, lactose, retinol, and cobalamin were significantly higher than in vegetarians. Significantly lower intakes were observed for fiber, magnesium, and beta-carotene. Significant OR were detected for total fat (OR = 0.29), SFA (OR = 0.04), beta-carotene (OR = 4.55), and cobalamin (OR = 0.32). HEI-2015 scores were higher for vegetarians than for omnivores (79 points versus 74 points) and significant differences were recorded for the HEI-2015 components dairy, seafood & plant proteins, fatty acids, added sugars, and saturated fatty acids. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetarian; omnivores; nutrient intake; food frequency questionnaire; healthy eating index; web application; personalized dietary advices vegetarian; omnivores; nutrient intake; food frequency questionnaire; healthy eating index; web application; personalized dietary advices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blaurock, J.; Kaiser, B.; Stelzl, T.; Weech, M.; Fallaize, R.; Franco, R.Z.; Hwang, F.; Lovegrove, J.; Finglas, P.M.; Gedrich, K. Dietary Quality in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Female Students in Germany: A Retrospective Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1888. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041888

AMA Style

Blaurock J, Kaiser B, Stelzl T, Weech M, Fallaize R, Franco RZ, Hwang F, Lovegrove J, Finglas PM, Gedrich K. Dietary Quality in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Female Students in Germany: A Retrospective Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1888. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041888

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blaurock, Julia, Birgit Kaiser, Tamara Stelzl, Michelle Weech, Rosalind Fallaize, Rodrigo Z. Franco, Faustina Hwang, Julie Lovegrove, Paul M. Finglas, and Kurt Gedrich. 2021. "Dietary Quality in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Female Students in Germany: A Retrospective Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1888. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041888

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