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Perceived Preparedness of Dental Academic Institutions to Cope with the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country Survey

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Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21253, Egypt
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Department of Child Dental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 22005, Nigeria
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Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Research Center for Caries Prevention, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-55991, Iran
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Community Oral Health Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14399-55991, Iran
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Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
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Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
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Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 34221, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok, Indonesia
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Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India
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Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
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Center for Oral Bioengineering, Barts and the London, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
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Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21253, Egypt
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Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine Foca, University of East Sarajevo, 73300 Foca, Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Oral Diagnosis and General Dentistry Department, Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
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Department of Oral and Maxillo Facial Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
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Department of Preventive and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Science and Technology, Sanaa 15201, Yemen
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Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya
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Department of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France
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Department of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, INSERM UMR_S 1121, Strasbourg University, 67000 Strasbourg, France
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Faculty of Dentistry, Thammasat University, Bangkok 10200, Thailand
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Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
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Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41940, Korea
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Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Arab American University, Jenin 240, Zababdeh 13, Palestine
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Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 34221, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Dentistry for Children and Adolescents, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
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Department of Prosthodontics, University of Dental Medicine, Mandalay 05041, Myanmar
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Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai 800 MBRU (6278), United Arab Emirates
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Centre for Dental Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AD, UK
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Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Beograd, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Endodontics, University of Salerno, 84080 Fisciano, Italy
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Department of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi 30197-00100, Kenya
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgio Rappelli and Takaaki Tomofuji
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041445
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 31 January 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Oral Health Outcomes)
Dental academic institutions are affected by COVID-19. We assessed the perceived COVID-19 preparedness of these institutions and the characteristics of institutions with greater perceived preparedness. An international cross-sectional survey of dental academics was conducted from March to August 2020 to assess academics’ and institutional attributes, perceived preparedness, and availability of infection prevention and control (IPC) equipment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified perceived preparedness components. Multilevel linear regression analysis assessed the association between perceived preparedness and fixed effect factors (academics’ and institutions’ attributes) with countries as random effect variable. Of the 1820 dental academics from 28 countries, 78.4% worked in public institutions and 75.2% reported temporary closure. PCA showed five components: clinic apparel, measures before and after patient care, institutional policies, and availability of IPC equipment. Significantly less perceived preparedness was reported in lower-middle income (LMICs) (B = −1.31, p = 0.006) and upper-middle income (UMICs) (B = −0.98, p = 0.02) countries than in high-income countries (HICs), in teaching only (B = −0.55, p < 0.0001) and in research only (B = −1.22, p = 0.003) than teaching and research institutions and in institutions receiving ≤100 patients daily than those receiving >100 patients (B = −0.38, p < 0.0001). More perceived preparedness was reported by academics with administrative roles (B = 0.59, p < 0.0001). Academics from low-income countries (LICs) and LMICs reported less availability of clinic apparel, IPC equipment, measures before patient care, and institutional policies but more measures during patient care. There was greater perceived preparedness in HICs and institutions with greater involvement in teaching, research, and patient care. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; academics; dental; surveys and questionnaires; pandemic; multilevel analysis; institution; preparedness COVID-19; academics; dental; surveys and questionnaires; pandemic; multilevel analysis; institution; preparedness
MDPI and ACS Style

Ammar, N.; Aly, N.M.; Folayan, M.O.; Khader, Y.; Mohebbi, S.Z.; Attia, S.; Howaldt, H.-P.; Boettger, S.; Virtanen, J.; Madi, M.; Maharani, D.A.; Rahardjo, A.; Khan, I.; Al-Batayneh, O.B.; Rashwan, M.; Pavlic, V.; Cicmil, S.; Noritake, K.; Galluccio, G.; Polimeni, A.; Shamala, A.A.; Arheiam, A.; Mancino, D.; Phantumvanit, P.; Kim, J.-B.; Choi, Y.-H.; Dama, M.A.; Abdelsalam, M.M.; Castillo, J.L.; Nyan, M.; Hussein, I.; Joury, E.; Vukovic, A.P.; Iandolo, A.; Kemoli, A.M.; El Tantawi, M. Perceived Preparedness of Dental Academic Institutions to Cope with the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041445

AMA Style

Ammar N, Aly NM, Folayan MO, Khader Y, Mohebbi SZ, Attia S, Howaldt H-P, Boettger S, Virtanen J, Madi M, Maharani DA, Rahardjo A, Khan I, Al-Batayneh OB, Rashwan M, Pavlic V, Cicmil S, Noritake K, Galluccio G, Polimeni A, Shamala AA, Arheiam A, Mancino D, Phantumvanit P, Kim J-B, Choi Y-H, Dama MA, Abdelsalam MM, Castillo JL, Nyan M, Hussein I, Joury E, Vukovic AP, Iandolo A, Kemoli AM, El Tantawi M. Perceived Preparedness of Dental Academic Institutions to Cope with the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041445

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ammar, Nour, Nourhan M. Aly, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Yousef Khader, Simin Z. Mohebbi, Sameh Attia, Hans-Peter Howaldt, Sebastian Boettger, Jorma Virtanen, Marwa Madi, Diah A. Maharani, Anton Rahardjo, Imran Khan, Ola B. Al-Batayneh, Maher Rashwan, Verica Pavlic, Smiljka Cicmil, Kanako Noritake, Gabriella Galluccio, Antonella Polimeni, Anas A. Shamala, Arheiam Arheiam, Davide Mancino, Prathip Phantumvanit, Jin-Bom Kim, Youn-Hee Choi, Mai A. Dama, Maha M. Abdelsalam, Jorge L. Castillo, Myat Nyan, Iyad Hussein, Easter Joury, Ana P. Vukovic, Alfredo Iandolo, Arthur M. Kemoli, and Maha El Tantawi. 2021. "Perceived Preparedness of Dental Academic Institutions to Cope with the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country Survey" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041445

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