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Influence of Maternal Active and Secondhand Smoking during Pregnancy on Childhood Obesity at 3 Years of Age: A Nested Case–Control Study from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

1
Center for Birth Cohort Studies, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan
2
Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan
3
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Shirakawa Kosei General Hospital, Fukushima 961-0005, Japan
5
Fukushima Regional Centre for the Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
6
Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group is provided in Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Zohra S. Lassi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312506
Received: 7 October 2021 / Revised: 23 November 2021 / Accepted: 24 November 2021 / Published: 27 November 2021
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for childhood obesity; however, the combined effect of secondhand smoking during pregnancy on children in the early years is unclear. We examined the effects of maternal active and secondhand smoking during pregnancy on childhood obesity in a large population-based cohort. A nested case–control study originating from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study was performed. The maternal smoking status was collected via self-administered questionnaires during mid/late pregnancy. Obesity in children was determined based on BMI measured at 3 years of age. In total, 4875 cases and 19,491 controls were included in the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models with a significance level of 5% (two-tailed test) were used to test the association. The proportion of mothers who continued smoking and who were exposed to secondhand smoking daily during pregnancy were 3.9% and 13.0% in cases and 2.9% and 10.8% in controls, respectively. Continuous maternal smoking was associated with increased odds of obesity compared to those who never smoked or quit smoking before the pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.92). The odds increased further when combined with secondhand smoking. The promotion of non-smoking among family members, in public and workplace could benefit pregnant women and offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: tobacco smoking; maternal exposure; secondhand smoking; childhood obesity tobacco smoking; maternal exposure; secondhand smoking; childhood obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Horiuchi, S.; Shinohara, R.; Otawa, S.; Kushima, M.; Akiyama, Y.; Ooka, T.; Kojima, R.; Yokomichi, H.; Miyake, K.; Hirai, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Shimabukuro, M.; Yamagata, Z.; Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Influence of Maternal Active and Secondhand Smoking during Pregnancy on Childhood Obesity at 3 Years of Age: A Nested Case–Control Study from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312506

AMA Style

Horiuchi S, Shinohara R, Otawa S, Kushima M, Akiyama Y, Ooka T, Kojima R, Yokomichi H, Miyake K, Hirai H, Hashimoto K, Shimabukuro M, Yamagata Z, Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Influence of Maternal Active and Secondhand Smoking during Pregnancy on Childhood Obesity at 3 Years of Age: A Nested Case–Control Study from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(23):12506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Horiuchi, Sayaka, Ryoji Shinohara, Sanae Otawa, Megumi Kushima, Yuka Akiyama, Tadao Ooka, Reiji Kojima, Hiroshi Yokomichi, Kunio Miyake, Hiroyuki Hirai, Koichi Hashimoto, Michio Shimabukuro, Zentaro Yamagata, and Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. 2021. "Influence of Maternal Active and Secondhand Smoking during Pregnancy on Childhood Obesity at 3 Years of Age: A Nested Case–Control Study from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 23: 12506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312506

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