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Article

Lifestyle Medicine and Economics: A Proposal for Research Priorities Informed by a Case Series of Disease Reversal

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American College of Lifestyle Medicine, Chesterfield, MO 63006, USA
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Department of Member Engagement & Administration, American College of Lifestyle Medicine, Chesterfield, MO 63006, USA
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School of Nursing, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
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School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14620, USA
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Ardmore Institute of Health, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
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Global Positive Health Institute, Sacramento, CA 95825, USA
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Department of Specialty Medicine, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
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Bright Health Group, Minneapolis, MN 55437, USA
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BlueZones Well-Being Institute, Adventist Health, Roseville, CA 95661, USA
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Midland Health, Midland, TX 79703, USA
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Medical Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
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Department of Research, American College of Lifestyle Medicine, Chesterfield, MO 63006, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leigh A. Frame
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111364
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
Chronic disease places an enormous economic burden on both individuals and the healthcare system, and existing fee-for-service models of healthcare prioritize symptom management, medications, and procedures over treating the root causes of disease through changing health behaviors. Value-based care is gaining traction, and there is a need for value-based care models that achieve the quadruple aim of (1) improved population health, (2) enhanced patient experience, (3) reduced healthcare costs, and (4) improved work life and decreased burnout of healthcare providers. Lifestyle medicine (LM) has the potential to achieve these four aims, including promoting health and wellness and reducing healthcare costs; however, the economic outcomes of LM approaches need to be better quantified in research. This paper demonstrates proof of concept by detailing four cases that utilized an intensive, therapeutic lifestyle intervention change (ITLC) to dramatically reverse disease and reduce healthcare costs. In addition, priorities for lifestyle medicine economic research related to the components of quadruple aim are proposed, including conducting rigorously designed research studies to adequately measure the effects of ITLC interventions, modeling the potential economic cost savings enabled by health improvements following lifestyle interventions as compared to usual disease progression and management, and examining the effects of lifestyle medicine implementation upon different payment models. View Full-Text
Keywords: lifestyle medicine; diabetes remission; chronic disease; healthcare costs; cost savings lifestyle medicine; diabetes remission; chronic disease; healthcare costs; cost savings
MDPI and ACS Style

Livingston, K.A.; Freeman, K.J.; Friedman, S.M.; Stout, R.W.; Lianov, L.S.; Drozek, D.; Shallow, J.; Shurney, D.; Patel, P.M.; Campbell, T.M.; Pauly, K.R.; Pollard, K.J.; Karlsen, M.C. Lifestyle Medicine and Economics: A Proposal for Research Priorities Informed by a Case Series of Disease Reversal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111364

AMA Style

Livingston KA, Freeman KJ, Friedman SM, Stout RW, Lianov LS, Drozek D, Shallow J, Shurney D, Patel PM, Campbell TM, Pauly KR, Pollard KJ, Karlsen MC. Lifestyle Medicine and Economics: A Proposal for Research Priorities Informed by a Case Series of Disease Reversal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111364

Chicago/Turabian Style

Livingston, Kara A., Kelly J. Freeman, Susan M. Friedman, Ron W. Stout, Liana S. Lianov, David Drozek, Jamie Shallow, Dexter Shurney, Padmaja M. Patel, Thomas M. Campbell, Kaitlyn R. Pauly, Kathryn J. Pollard, and Micaela C. Karlsen. 2021. "Lifestyle Medicine and Economics: A Proposal for Research Priorities Informed by a Case Series of Disease Reversal" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111364

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