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Article

Antecedents of Workplace Bullying among Employees in Germany: Five-Year Lagged Effects of Job Demands and Job Resources

1
Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 10317 Berlin, Germany
3
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jun Sung Hong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010805
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term association of job demands and job resources with self-reported exposure to workplace bullying in a representative sample of employees in Germany. Methods: We analysed a nation-wide representative cohort of employees working in the same workplace with a 5-year follow-up (S-MGA; N = 1637). The study contained self-reported measures of psychosocial working conditions, including work pace, amount of work, influence at work, role clarity and quality of leadership, and workplace bullying, and of organisational factors, including organisational restructuring and layoffs. Results: After controlling for bullying and occupational level at baseline, higher baseline levels of organisational restructuring (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.10–2.70), work pace (1.30; 95% CI 1.01–1.66), and amount of work (1.55; 95% CI 1.21–1.99), and lower baseline levels of influence at work (0.70; 95% CI 0.55–0.90) and quality of leadership (0.64; 95% CI 0.50–0.82), were associated with an elevated risk of workplace bullying at follow-up. In all, 90% of cases of self-reported workplace bullying could be attributed to these factors. Conclusions: The study suggests that employees reporting higher demands and lower resources, as well as organisational factors such as restructuring, are at a higher long-term risk of being targets of workplace bullying. Interventions aimed at preventing workplace bullying could benefit from a focus on psychosocial working conditions and organisational factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: workplace bullying; S-MGA; job demands-resources model; psychosocial working conditions; prospective study workplace bullying; S-MGA; job demands-resources model; psychosocial working conditions; prospective study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Conway, P.M.; Burr, H.; Rose, U.; Clausen, T.; Balducci, C. Antecedents of Workplace Bullying among Employees in Germany: Five-Year Lagged Effects of Job Demands and Job Resources. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10805. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010805

AMA Style

Conway PM, Burr H, Rose U, Clausen T, Balducci C. Antecedents of Workplace Bullying among Employees in Germany: Five-Year Lagged Effects of Job Demands and Job Resources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10805. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010805

Chicago/Turabian Style

Conway, Paul Maurice, Hermann Burr, Uwe Rose, Thomas Clausen, and Cristian Balducci. 2021. "Antecedents of Workplace Bullying among Employees in Germany: Five-Year Lagged Effects of Job Demands and Job Resources" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10805. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010805

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