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Review

Safe Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Review on the Costs of Establishing and Maintaining Environmental Health in Facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

1
The Water Institute, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
ICF International, Durham, NC 27713, USA
3
Health Sciences Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
4
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020817
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
A hygienic environment is essential to provide quality patient care and prevent healthcare-acquired infections. Understanding costs is important to budget for service delivery, but costs evidence for environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) is lacking. We present the first systematic review to evaluate the costs of establishing, operating, and maintaining EHS in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched for studies costing water, sanitation, hygiene, cleaning, waste management, personal protective equipment, vector control, laundry, and lighting in LMICs. Our search yielded 36 studies that reported costs for 51 EHS. There were 3 studies that reported costs for water, 3 for sanitation, 4 for hygiene, 13 for waste management, 16 for cleaning, 2 for personal protective equipment, 10 for laundry, and none for lighting or vector control. Quality of evidence was low. Reported costs were rarely representative of the total costs of EHS provision. Unit costs were infrequently reported. This review identifies opportunities to improve costing research through efforts to categorize and disaggregate EHS costs, greater dissemination of existing unpublished data, improvements to indicators to monitor EHS demand and quality necessary to contextualize costs, and development of frameworks to define EHS needs and essential inputs to guide future costing. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthcare facilities; environmental health; water sanitation and hygiene; WaSH; waste management; cleaning; infection prevention and control; costing; finance; economic healthcare facilities; environmental health; water sanitation and hygiene; WaSH; waste management; cleaning; infection prevention and control; costing; finance; economic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, D.M.; Cronk, R.; Fejfar, D.; Pak, E.; Cawley, M.; Bartram, J. Safe Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Review on the Costs of Establishing and Maintaining Environmental Health in Facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 817. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020817

AMA Style

Anderson DM, Cronk R, Fejfar D, Pak E, Cawley M, Bartram J. Safe Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Review on the Costs of Establishing and Maintaining Environmental Health in Facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):817. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020817

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anderson, Darcy M., Ryan Cronk, Donald Fejfar, Emily Pak, Michelle Cawley, and Jamie Bartram. 2021. "Safe Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Review on the Costs of Establishing and Maintaining Environmental Health in Facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 817. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020817

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