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Open AccessArticle

Atmospheric Behaviour of Polycyclic and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Winter in Kirishima, a Typical Japanese Commercial City

1
Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
2
National Institute of Technology, Kagoshima College, Hayatocho, Kirishima 899-5193, Japan
3
Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
4
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
5
Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020688
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
Kirishima is a typical Japanese commercial city, famous for frequent volcanic activity. This is the first study to determine the characteristics of PM2.5-bound polycyclic and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and NPAHs) and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) in this city. In this study, the non-volcanic eruption period was taken as the target and daily PM2.5 samples were collected from 24 November to 21 December 2016. The daily concentrations in PM2.5 of ƩPAHs, ƩNPAHs, and ƩWSIIs ranged from 0.36 to 2.90 ng/m3, 2.12 to 22.3 pg/m3, and 1.96 to 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. Through the results of the diagnostic ratio analyses of the PAHs, NPAHs, and WSIIs and the backward trajectory analysis of the air masses arriving in Kirishima, the emission sources of PAHs, NPAHs, and WSIIs in PM2.5 in Kirishima were influenced by the coal burning that came from the East Asian continent, although there was no influence from volcanic emission sources during the sampling period. The total benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-equivalent concentration was lower than many other cities but the health risks in Kirishima were nonetheless notable. These findings are very important for future research on PM samples during the inactive Asian monsoon and volcanic eruption periods, to further understand the characteristics of air pollutants in Kirishima, and to contribute to the improvement in health of residents and a reduction in the atmospheric circulation of air pollutants in East Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; water-soluble inorganic ions; Kirishima air pollution; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; water-soluble inorganic ions; Kirishima
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, L.; Zhou, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Xing, W.; Wang, Y.; Bai, P.; Yamauchi, M.; Chohji, T.; Zhang, L.; Hayakawa, K.; Toriba, A.; Tang, N. Atmospheric Behaviour of Polycyclic and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Winter in Kirishima, a Typical Japanese Commercial City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020688

AMA Style

Yang L, Zhou Q, Zhang H, Zhang X, Xing W, Wang Y, Bai P, Yamauchi M, Chohji T, Zhang L, Hayakawa K, Toriba A, Tang N. Atmospheric Behaviour of Polycyclic and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Winter in Kirishima, a Typical Japanese Commercial City. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020688

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Lu; Zhou, Quanyu; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuan; Xing, Wanli; Wang, Yan; Bai, Pengchu; Yamauchi, Masahito; Chohji, Tetsuji; Zhang, Lulu; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning. 2021. "Atmospheric Behaviour of Polycyclic and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Winter in Kirishima, a Typical Japanese Commercial City" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 2: 688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020688

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