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Article

An Analysis of Participation and Performance of 2067 100-km Ultra-Marathons Worldwide

1
Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
2
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, 18450 Nikaia, Greece
3
School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Athens, Greece
4
Institute of Primary Care, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
5
Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Ultra Sports Science Foundation, 69130 Pierre-Bénite, France
7
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology & Nutrition, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020362
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
This study aimed to analyze the number of successful finishers and the performance of the athletes in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide. A total of 2067 100-km ultra-marathon races with 369,969 men and 69,668 women competing between 1960 and 2019 were analyzed, including the number of successful finishers, age, sex, and running speed. The results showed a strong increase in the number of running events as well as a strong increase in the number of participants in the 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide. The performance gap disappeared in athletes older than 60 years. Nevertheless, the running speed of athletes over 70 years has improved every decade. In contrast, the performance gap among the top three athletes remains persistent over all decades (F = 83.4, p < 0.001; pη2 = 0.039). The performance gap between the sexes is not significant in the youngest age groups (20–29 years) and the oldest age groups (>90 years) among recreational athletes and among top-three athletes over 70 years. In summary, especially for older athletes, a 100-km ultra-marathon competition shows an increasing number of opponents and a stronger performance challenge. This will certainly be of interest for coaches and athletes in the future, both from a scientific and sporting point of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultra-marathon; participation; performance gap; male–female differences ultra-marathon; participation; performance gap; male–female differences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stöhr, A.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Villiger, E.; Sousa, C.V.; Scheer, V.; Hill, L.; Knechtle, B. An Analysis of Participation and Performance of 2067 100-km Ultra-Marathons Worldwide. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020362

AMA Style

Stöhr A, Nikolaidis PT, Villiger E, Sousa CV, Scheer V, Hill L, Knechtle B. An Analysis of Participation and Performance of 2067 100-km Ultra-Marathons Worldwide. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020362

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stöhr, Angelika, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Caio V. Sousa, Volker Scheer, Lee Hill, and Beat Knechtle. 2021. "An Analysis of Participation and Performance of 2067 100-km Ultra-Marathons Worldwide" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020362

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