Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Peer Attachment on Left-Behind Children’s Pathological Internet Use: A Moderated Mediating Effect Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): A Cytoarchitectural Common Neurobiological Trait of All Addictions
Previous Article in Journal
An Investigation on Korean Adolescents’ Dietary Consumption: Focused on Sociodemographic Characteristics, Physical Health, and Mental Health
Previous Article in Special Issue
Representations of Psychoactive Drugs’ Use in Mass Culture and Their Impact on Audiences
Article

Hypothesizing Nutrigenomic-Based Precision Anti-Obesity Treatment and Prophylaxis: Should We Be Targeting Sarcopenia Induced Brain Dysfunction?

1
Center for Psychiatry, Medicine & Primary Care (Office of the Provost), Division of Addiction Research & Education, Western University Health Science, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
2
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Kazinczy u. 23-27, 1075 Budapest, Hungary
3
Division of Nutrigenomics, Genomic Testing Center Geneus Health, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
5
Department of Psychiatry, Wright University Boonshoff School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45377, USA
6
Division of Precision Nutrition, Victory Nutrition International, Bonita Springs, FL 34135, USA
7
The Kenneth Blum Behavioral & Neurogenetic Institute, Division of Ivitalize Inc., Austin, TX 78701, USA
8
Division of Clinical Neurology, Path Foundation NY, New York, NY 10010, USA
9
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
10
Department of Psychology & Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions (BNNLA), Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
11
Department of Molecular Biology, Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
12
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX 77004, USA
13
Department of Psychiatry, South Texas Veteran Health Care System, Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Center, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189774
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 27 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction: A Public Health Global Pandemic)
Background: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates a total obesity rate of 30% for 12 states and a 20% obesity rate nationwide. The obesity epidemic continues to increase in spite of preventative measures undertaken worldwide. Pharmacological treatments promise to reduce total fat mass. However, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. Data Retrieval: This brief review, based on a PUBMED search of the key terms “Obesity” and” Sarcopenia,” will present evidence to corroborate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) in obesity and the involvement of catecholaminergic pathways in substance seeking behavior, particularly as it relates to carbohydrates cravings. Expert Opinion: The genetic basis and future genetic testing of children for risk of aberrant generalized craving behavior are considered a prevention method. Here we present evidence supporting the use of precursor amino acid therapy and modulation of enkephalinase, MOA, and COMT inhibition in key brain regions. Such treatments manifest in improved levels of dopamine/norepinephrine, GABA, serotonin, and enkephalins. We also present evidence substantiating insulin sensitivity enhancement via Chromium salts, which affect dopamine neuronal synthesis regulation. We believe our unique combination of natural ingredients will influence many pathways leading to the promotion of well-being and normal healthy metabolic functioning. Sarcopenia has been shown to reduce angiogenesis and possible cerebral blood flow. Exercise seems to provide a significant benefit to overcome this obesity-promoting loss of muscle density. Conclusion: Utilization of proposed nutrigenomic formulae based on coupling genetic obesity risk testing promotes generalized anti-craving of carbohydrates and can inhibit carbohydrate bingeing, inducing significant healthy fat loss and relapse prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; nutrigenomics; resting-state functional connectivity; sarcopenia; BMI; percent body fat; hypodopaminergia; Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) obesity; nutrigenomics; resting-state functional connectivity; sarcopenia; BMI; percent body fat; hypodopaminergia; Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Blum, K.; Gold, M.S.; Llanos-Gomez, L.; Jalali, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Bowirrat, A.; Downs, W.B.; Bagchi, D.; Braverman, E.R.; Baron, D.; Roy, A.K., III; Badgaiyan, R.D. Hypothesizing Nutrigenomic-Based Precision Anti-Obesity Treatment and Prophylaxis: Should We Be Targeting Sarcopenia Induced Brain Dysfunction? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9774. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189774

AMA Style

Blum K, Gold MS, Llanos-Gomez L, Jalali R, Thanos PK, Bowirrat A, Downs WB, Bagchi D, Braverman ER, Baron D, Roy AK III, Badgaiyan RD. Hypothesizing Nutrigenomic-Based Precision Anti-Obesity Treatment and Prophylaxis: Should We Be Targeting Sarcopenia Induced Brain Dysfunction? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9774. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189774

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blum, Kenneth, Mark S. Gold, Luis Llanos-Gomez, Rehan Jalali, Panayotis K. Thanos, Abdalla Bowirrat, William B. Downs, Debasis Bagchi, Eric R. Braverman, David Baron, Alphonso K. Roy III, and Rajendra D. Badgaiyan 2021. "Hypothesizing Nutrigenomic-Based Precision Anti-Obesity Treatment and Prophylaxis: Should We Be Targeting Sarcopenia Induced Brain Dysfunction?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9774. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189774

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop