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Review

Effectiveness of Therapeutic Gardens for People with Dementia: A Systematic Review

1
Department of General Psychology, Università degli Studi di Padova, 35121 Padova, Italy
2
Department of Land Environment Agriculture and Forestry, Università degli Studi di Padova, 35020 Padova, Italy
3
“Giotto” Social Cooperative, 35127 Padova, Italy
4
Casa Madre Teresa di Calcutta (O.P.S.A.), 35030 Padova, Italy
5
Inter-University Research Center in Environmental Psychology (CIRPA), 00185 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kirsten Kaya Roessler, Brady Wagoner, Sofie Pedersen and Mads Bank
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189595
Received: 9 August 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 September 2021 / Published: 12 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Environments—Existential Challenges and Healing Places)
This paper is a systematic review of quantitative studies conducted on the benefits of visiting gardens and gardening therapy for people with dementia (PWD) in an effort to assess the effectiveness of such treatments and obtain information on the most appropriate garden design for this population. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA) guidelines. Four databases were searched (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus), with no time limits. Out of a total of 480 articles considered, 16 studies were selected for review. In all but two of the studies examined, gardening therapy and the use of therapeutic gardens induced psychophysiological improvements in PWD. The areas showing the greatest effects were Engagement, Agitation, Depression/Mood, Stress, and Medication. It also emerged that interest in this sphere has been growing in the last decade, but there is still a shortage of empirical evidence of the beneficial effects of therapeutic gardens in relation to the type and severity of dementia, and of garden design guidelines. Despite the limited number of studies investigated, the review confirmed the benefits of gardening and therapeutic gardens in PWD. There is nonetheless a need to conduct more quantitative research to support currently-available evidence and generate more information, focusing on garden design criteria, in-garden activities, the type and severity of dementia examined, and effects on caregivers as well as on PWD. View Full-Text
Keywords: therapeutic garden; horticultural therapy; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; restorative environments; systematic review therapeutic garden; horticultural therapy; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; restorative environments; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murroni, V.; Cavalli, R.; Basso, A.; Borella, E.; Meneghetti, C.; Melendugno, A.; Pazzaglia, F. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Gardens for People with Dementia: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9595. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189595

AMA Style

Murroni V, Cavalli R, Basso A, Borella E, Meneghetti C, Melendugno A, Pazzaglia F. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Gardens for People with Dementia: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9595. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189595

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murroni, Veronica, Raffaele Cavalli, Andrea Basso, Erika Borella, Chiara Meneghetti, Andrea Melendugno, and Francesca Pazzaglia. 2021. "Effectiveness of Therapeutic Gardens for People with Dementia: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9595. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189595

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