Next Article in Journal
Culturally Adaptive Governance—Building a New Framework for Equity in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research: Theoretical Basis, Ethics, Attributes and Evaluation
Next Article in Special Issue
Genetic Polymorphism of Delta Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) Gene and Symptoms of Chronic Mercury Exposure in Munduruku Indigenous Children within the Brazilian Amazon
Previous Article in Journal
Prevalence and Predictors of Willingness to Make Advance Directives among Macao Chinese
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analyzing Spatial Patterns of Health Vulnerability to Drought in the Brazilian Semiarid Region
Article

Health Risk Assessment of Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption in Munduruku Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Amazon

1
Laboratory of Professional Education in Health Surveillance, Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic School of Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Human Ecology, Fish, Fisheries and Conservation, Postgraduate Program in Biosciences, Federal University of West Para, 68270-000 Oriximiná, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of West Para, 68040-470 Santarém, Brazil
4
Environment Section, Evandro Chagas Institute, Health Surveillance Secretariat, Ministry of Health, 67030-000 Ananindeua, Brazil
5
Samuel Pessoa Department of Endemics, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rejane C. Marques, José Garrofe Dórea and Rafael Junqueira Buralli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157940
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Occupational Health in Brazil)
Fish serves as the principal source of animal protein for the indigenous people of the Amazon, ensuring their food and nutritional security. However, gold mining causes mercury (Hg) contamination in fish, and consequently increases health risks associated with fish consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the health risk attributed to the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish by Munduruku indigenous communities in the Middle-Tapajós Region. Different fish species were collected in the Sawré Muybu Indigenous Land to determine mercury levels. The health risk assessment was carried out according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2008) methodology and different scenarios were built for counterfactual analysis. Eighty-eight fish specimens from 17 species and four trophic levels were analyzed. Estimates of Hg ingestion indicated that the methylmercury daily intake exceeds the U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2000) reference dose from 3 to 25-fold, and up to 11 times the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)/WHO (2003) dose recommendation. In all situations analyzed, the risk ratio estimates were above 1.0, meaning that the investigated Munduruku communities are at serious risk of harm as a result of ingestion of mercury-contaminated fish. These results indicate that, at present, fish consumption is not safe for this Munduruku population. This hazardous situation threatens the survival of this indigenous population, their food security, and their culture. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury; indigenous; health risk assessment; Munduruku; fish; Brazilian Amazon mercury; indigenous; health risk assessment; Munduruku; fish; Brazilian Amazon
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vasconcellos, A.C.S.d.; Hallwass, G.; Bezerra, J.G.; Aciole, A.N.S.; Meneses, H.N.d.M.; Lima, M.d.O.; Jesus, I.M.d.; Hacon, S.d.S.; Basta, P.C. Health Risk Assessment of Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption in Munduruku Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Amazon. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157940

AMA Style

Vasconcellos ACSd, Hallwass G, Bezerra JG, Aciole ANS, Meneses HNdM, Lima MdO, Jesus IMd, Hacon SdS, Basta PC. Health Risk Assessment of Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption in Munduruku Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Amazon. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vasconcellos, Ana C.S.d., Gustavo Hallwass, Jaqueline G. Bezerra, Angélico N.S. Aciole, Heloisa N.d.M. Meneses, Marcelo d.O. Lima, Iracina M.d. Jesus, Sandra d.S. Hacon, and Paulo C. Basta. 2021. "Health Risk Assessment of Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption in Munduruku Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Amazon" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157940

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop