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Article

Casomorphins and Gliadorphins Have Diverse Systemic Effects Spanning Gut, Brain and Internal Organs

Agri-Food Systems, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7674, New Zealand
Academic Editors: Pablo Roman and Diana María Cardona Mena
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157911
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 17 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Health: Gut Microbiota)
Food-derived opioid peptides include digestive products derived from cereal and dairy diets. If these opioid peptides breach the intestinal barrier, typically linked to permeability and constrained biosynthesis of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), they can attach to opioid receptors. The widespread presence of opioid receptors spanning gut, brain, and internal organs is fundamental to the diverse and systemic effects of food-derived opioids, with effects being evidential across many health conditions. However, manifestation delays following low-intensity long-term exposure create major challenges for clinical trials. Accordingly, it has been easiest to demonstrate causal relationships in digestion-based research where some impacts occur rapidly. Within this environment, the role of the microbiome is evidential but challenging to further elucidate, with microbiome effects ranging across gut-condition indicators and modulators, and potentially as systemic causal factors. Elucidation requires a systemic framework that acknowledges that public-health effects of food-derived opioids are complex with varying genetic susceptibility and confounding factors, together with system-wide interactions and feedbacks. The specific role of the microbiome within this puzzle remains a medical frontier. The easiest albeit challenging nutritional strategy to modify risk is reduced intake of foods containing embedded opioids. In future, constituent modification within specific foods to reduce embedded opioids may become feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: food-derived opioids; casomorphin; gliadorphin; opioid receptors; A1 beta-casein; beta-casomorphin-7; gut-to-brain; microbiome; DPP4 food-derived opioids; casomorphin; gliadorphin; opioid receptors; A1 beta-casein; beta-casomorphin-7; gut-to-brain; microbiome; DPP4
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MDPI and ACS Style

Woodford, K.B. Casomorphins and Gliadorphins Have Diverse Systemic Effects Spanning Gut, Brain and Internal Organs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7911. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157911

AMA Style

Woodford KB. Casomorphins and Gliadorphins Have Diverse Systemic Effects Spanning Gut, Brain and Internal Organs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7911. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157911

Chicago/Turabian Style

Woodford, Keith Bernard. 2021. "Casomorphins and Gliadorphins Have Diverse Systemic Effects Spanning Gut, Brain and Internal Organs" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7911. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157911

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