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Article

Differences in Cumulative Long-Term Care Costs by Community Activities and Employment: A Prospective Follow-Up Study of Older Japanese Adults

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Faculty of Social Welfare, Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi 470-3295, Japan
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Center for Well-Being and Society, Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi 460-0012, Japan
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Department of Social Epidemiology and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine and School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
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Department of Oral Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
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Center for Public Health Science, National Cancer Center Japan, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
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National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka 564-8565, Japan
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Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
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Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-0856, Japan
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Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jimmy T. Efird
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105414
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
We evaluated differences in the cumulative benefit costs of public long-term care (LTC) insurance services by employment status and frequency of community activities. A baseline survey was conducted on functionally independent older people from 12 municipalities as a nationwide survey from 2010 to 2011. Employment status was dichotomized, and community activity was assessed based on the frequency of participation in hobbies, sports clubs, or volunteering. We followed the respondents’ LTC service costs over a period of 6 years using public LTC claim records (n = 46,616). We adopted a classical linear regression analysis and an inverse probability weighting estimation with multiple imputation for missing values. Compared with non-participation in each community activity, the cumulative LTC costs among individuals who participated in hobbies or sports group activities at least twice a week were 1.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.72) to 1.18 (0.68–1.67) thousand USD lower per person over the 6-year period (28.7% to 30.1% lower, respectively). Similarly, the costs for employed persons were 0.55 (0.20–0.90) to 0.64 (0.29–0.99) thousand USD per person lower than among retirees (14.5% to 16.9% lower). Promoting employment opportunities and frequent participation in community activities among older adults may help reduce future LTC costs by around 20% as a result of extending healthy longevity. View Full-Text
Keywords: public long-term care insurance; cumulative cost; community activities; employment; older adults public long-term care insurance; cumulative cost; community activities; employment; older adults
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saito, M.; Kondo, N.; Aida, J.; Saito, J.; Anezaki, H.; Ojima, T.; Kondo, K. Differences in Cumulative Long-Term Care Costs by Community Activities and Employment: A Prospective Follow-Up Study of Older Japanese Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5414. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105414

AMA Style

Saito M, Kondo N, Aida J, Saito J, Anezaki H, Ojima T, Kondo K. Differences in Cumulative Long-Term Care Costs by Community Activities and Employment: A Prospective Follow-Up Study of Older Japanese Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5414. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105414

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saito, Masashige, Naoki Kondo, Jun Aida, Junko Saito, Hisataka Anezaki, Toshiyuki Ojima, and Katsunori Kondo. 2021. "Differences in Cumulative Long-Term Care Costs by Community Activities and Employment: A Prospective Follow-Up Study of Older Japanese Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5414. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105414

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