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Article

Association between the Use of Health Services, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults

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Faculty of Nutrition, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, Cuernavaca 62350, Mexico
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Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, México City 04360, Mexico
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Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands-IUNICS & IDISBA, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Faculty of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Avila, 05005 Avila, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mathieu Gayda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105336
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
Background: The use of health services is a complex behavioral phenomenon affected by multiple factors (availability, distance, cost, quality, attitudes, cultural beliefs, socioeconomic characteristics, and individuals’ self-perception of health). Mexico has a segmented health system, and the access to it depends on the labor insertion and the population’s ability to pay. Objective: To assess association between use of health services and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors among Mexican adults. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional nationally representative study carried out on Mexican adults (≥20-year-old adults of both sexes; n = 4595). Socioeconomic factors, geographic area, health care coverage, information about the use of health services, previous medical diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension, and smoking were assessed. Anthropometrics, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose plasma levels were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. Prevalences were expressed in terms of percentages, and significant differences were calculated using χ2 test. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the use of health services and cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic variables. Results: The probability of using health services is higher and more significant in subjects with obesity, diabetes (OR (95% CI): 1.73 (1.49–2.00; p < 0.001), hypertension (OR (95% CI): 1.29 (1.14–1.45; p < 0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (OR (95% CI): 1.30 (1.15–1.46; p < 0.001), and in those with hypercholesterolemia (OR (95% CI): 1.23 (1.03–1.39; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Among health service users, there is a positive significant association between the use of health services and the presence of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: health services; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk factors; Mexico health services; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk factors; Mexico
MDPI and ACS Style

Ortiz-Rodríguez, M.A.; Aldaz-Rodríguez, M.V.; González-Robledo, L.M.; Villa, A.; Bouzas, C.; Pastor, R.; Tur, J.A. Association between the Use of Health Services, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5336. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105336

AMA Style

Ortiz-Rodríguez MA, Aldaz-Rodríguez MV, González-Robledo LM, Villa A, Bouzas C, Pastor R, Tur JA. Association between the Use of Health Services, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5336. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105336

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ortiz-Rodríguez, María A., María V. Aldaz-Rodríguez, Luz M. González-Robledo, Antonio Villa, Cristina Bouzas, Rosario Pastor, and Josep A. Tur 2021. "Association between the Use of Health Services, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5336. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105336

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