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Article

Staphylococcus aureus—An Additional Parameter of Bathing Water Quality for Crowded Urban Beaches

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Department of Environmental Health, Teaching Institute of Public Health of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Krešimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Laboratory of Microbiology, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, P.O. Box 500, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Braće Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Faculty of Health Studies, University of Rijeka, Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Bijenička Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Faculty of Economics, University of Rijeka, Ivana Filipovića 4, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105234
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 14 May 2021
During the last years, the report of the occurrence of waterborne disease symptoms related to non-enteric pathogens has increased, without any record of higher levels of indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci). Therefore, the use of current indicators is not always adequate when assessing the overall potential health risk and the inclusion of additional parameters needs to be examined. This paper reports on the incidence and levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 258 locations in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County (Croatia) recorded by official bathing water quality monitoring, as well as supplemental monitoring carried out at the two most frequented beaches in the City of Rijeka. The number of bathers was found to be the main factor affecting S. aureus levels (r = 0.321, p < 0.05). The share of S. aureus positive samples from the official monitoring was significantly lower, when compared to the share of samples from supplemental monitoring (2.2% and 36.3%, respectively; p < 0.01). Besides the number of bathers, one of the main reasons is likely the higher sampling frequency. No correlation was found between S. aureus levels and the indicator bacteria. The results indicate that the determination of S. aureus and increased sampling frequency is recommended for overcrowded beaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: bathing water quality; crowded beaches; fecal indicator bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus bathing water quality; crowded beaches; fecal indicator bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Topić, N.; Cenov, A.; Jozić, S.; Glad, M.; Mance, D.; Lušić, D.; Kapetanović, D.; Mance, D.; Vukić Lušić, D. Staphylococcus aureus—An Additional Parameter of Bathing Water Quality for Crowded Urban Beaches. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105234

AMA Style

Topić N, Cenov A, Jozić S, Glad M, Mance D, Lušić D, Kapetanović D, Mance D, Vukić Lušić D. Staphylococcus aureus—An Additional Parameter of Bathing Water Quality for Crowded Urban Beaches. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Topić, Nancy, Arijana Cenov, Slaven Jozić, Marin Glad, Diana Mance, Dražen Lušić, Damir Kapetanović, Davor Mance, and Darija Vukić Lušić. 2021. "Staphylococcus aureus—An Additional Parameter of Bathing Water Quality for Crowded Urban Beaches" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105234

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