Promoting the Psychological Well-Being of Healthcare Providers Facing the Burden of Adverse Events: A Systematic Review of Second Victim Support Resources
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
- the development and/or the implementation and/or the evaluation of support resources for second victims (i.e., support program, toolkit, course) were described. Second victims include all healthcare providers (e.g., physicians, nurses, midwives) involved in adverse events/patient safety incidents regardless of their profession, age or other sociodemographic characteristics;
- the support program was described in detail elucidating every step of the support strategy;
- the support program was part of a structured intervention organized and/or promoted by their healthcare institution.
2.3. Risk of Bias Assessment
2.4. Outcome Measures
- a descriptive overview of second victims support resources developed around the world;
- their conceptual basis, including aspects/elements of the Safety I (i.e., mostly reactive approach focusing on identifying risks and causes of adverse outcomes, and limiting their reoccurrence) and Safety II approach (i.e., proactive approach focusing on identifying resources and key elements of a positive performance, and promoting resilience at the individual and institutional level);
- programs’ benefits for second victims;
- personal perceptions and experiences of peer supporters; and
- challenges encountered during the implementation of the support resources.
2.5. Data Extraction and Synthesis
3.1. Risk of Bias Assessment
3.2. Second Victim Support Resources
3.2.1. Main Characteristics
3.2.2. Conceptual Basis of Second Victim Support Resources
Incorporated Elements of Safety I and Safety II
3.2.3. Descriptive Statistics of Support Encounters
3.2.4. Descriptive Statistics of Supported Staff and Peer Supporters
3.3. Benefits of Support Programs for Second Victims
3.4. Personal Perceptions and Experiences of Peer Supporters
3.5. Challenges Encountered during Implementation of the Programs
4.1. Recommendations for Clinical Practice
4.3. Future Research Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|1. Is the qualitative approach appropriate to answer the research question?||2. Are the qualitative data collection methods adequate to address the research question?||3. Are the findings adequately derived from the data?||4. Is the interpretation of results sufficiently substantiated by data?||5. Is there coherence between qualitative data sources, collection analysis, and interpretation?|
|Trent et al., 2016 |
|Quantitative non-randomized studies|
|1. Are the participants representative of the target population?||2. Are measurements appropriate regarding both the outcome and intervention (or exposure)?||3. Are there complete outcome data?||4. Are the confounders accounted for in the design and analysis?||5. During the study period, is the intervention administered (or exposure occurred) as intended?|
|Wijaya et al., 2018 |
(no specific name given)
|Quantitative descriptive studies|
|1. Is the sampling strategy relevant to address the research question?||2. Is the sample representative of the target population?||3. Are the measurements appropriate?||4. Is the risk of nonresponse bias low? (for case series and case report: are there complete data on the cases?)||5. Is the statistical analysis appropriate to answer the research question?|
|Hirschinger et al., 2015 |
|Krzan et al., 2015 |
|Lane et al., 2018 |
(WUSM Peer Support Program)
|Merandi et al., 2017 |
|Mira et al., 2017 |
|Mixed methods studies|
|1. Is there an adequate rationale for using a mixed methods design to address the research question?||2. Are the different components of the study effectively integrated to answer the research questions?||3. Are the outputs of the integration of qualitative and quantitative components adequately interpreted?||4. Are divergences and inconsistencies between quantitative and qualitative results adequately addressed?||5. Do the different components of the study adhere to the quality criteria of each tradition of the methods involved?|
|Connors et al., 2021 |
|Dukhanin et al., 2018 |
|Edrees et al., 2016 |
|El Hechi et al., 2019 |
(Surgery-Specific Second Victim Support Program)
|Scott et al., 2010 |
|JBI CRITICAL APPRAISAL CHECKLIST FOR TEXT AND OPINION PAPERS|
|1. Source of opinion identified||2. Source of opinion having a standing in the field||3. Interests of the relevant population as central focus of the opinion||4. Stated position as result of analytical process and logic in the expressed opinion||5. Reference to the extant literature||6. Incongruence with the literature/sources logically defended|
|Morales & Brown, 2019 |
(Care for the Caregiver Program)
|Pratt et al., 2012 |
(Medically Induced Trauma Support Services Tool)
|Roesler et al., 2009 |
(Healing Beyond Today)
|Van Pelt, 2008 |
(Peer Support Team)
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Busch, I.M.; Moretti, F.; Campagna, I.; Benoni, R.; Tardivo, S.; Wu, A.W.; Rimondini, M. Promoting the Psychological Well-Being of Healthcare Providers Facing the Burden of Adverse Events: A Systematic Review of Second Victim Support Resources. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105080
Busch IM, Moretti F, Campagna I, Benoni R, Tardivo S, Wu AW, Rimondini M. Promoting the Psychological Well-Being of Healthcare Providers Facing the Burden of Adverse Events: A Systematic Review of Second Victim Support Resources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105080Chicago/Turabian Style
Busch, Isolde Martina, Francesca Moretti, Irene Campagna, Roberto Benoni, Stefano Tardivo, Albert W. Wu, and Michela Rimondini. 2021. "Promoting the Psychological Well-Being of Healthcare Providers Facing the Burden of Adverse Events: A Systematic Review of Second Victim Support Resources" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105080