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Open AccessArticle

Time-Varying Insomnia Symptoms and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia among Older US Adults

1
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
2
Department of Health Services Policy & Management, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 292901, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010351
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Mental Health among Older Adults)
There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between insomnia and the onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This study aimed to evaluate if time-varying insomnia is associated with the development of MCI and dementia. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 13,833) from 2002 to 2014 were used (59.4% female). The Brief Insomnia Questionnaire was used to identify insomnia symptoms which were compiled in an insomnia severity index, ranging from 0 to 4. In analysis, participants’ symptoms could vary from wave-to-wave. Dementia was defined using results from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) global cognitive assessment tool. Respondents were classified as either having dementia, MCI, or being cognitively healthy. Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent exposure using the counting process (start-stop time) were used for analysis. For each one-unit increase in the insomnia symptom index, there was a 5-percent greater hazard of MCI (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.04–1.06) and dementia (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03–1.05), after fully adjusting. Using a nationally representative sample of adults age 51 and older, this study found that time-varying insomnia symptoms are associated with risk of MCI and dementia. This highlights the importance of identifying sleep disturbances and their change over time as potentially important risk factors for MCI and dementia. View Full-Text
Keywords: dementia; cognitive impairment; time-varying; insomnia; older adults; sleep dementia; cognitive impairment; time-varying; insomnia; older adults; sleep
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MDPI and ACS Style

Resciniti, N.V.; Yelverton, V.; Kase, B.E.; Zhang, J.; Lohman, M.C. Time-Varying Insomnia Symptoms and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia among Older US Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010351

AMA Style

Resciniti NV, Yelverton V, Kase BE, Zhang J, Lohman MC. Time-Varying Insomnia Symptoms and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia among Older US Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010351

Chicago/Turabian Style

Resciniti, Nicholas V.; Yelverton, Valerie; Kase, Bezawit E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Lohman, Matthew C. 2021. "Time-Varying Insomnia Symptoms and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia among Older US Adults" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010351

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