Next Article in Journal
World Trade Center Exposure and Posttraumatic Growth: Assessing Positive Psychological Change 15 Years after 9/11
Previous Article in Journal
Cardiovascular Comorbidities and Pharmacological Treatments of COVID-19 Patients Not Requiring Hospitalization
Open AccessReview

The 4R’s Framework of Nutritional Strategies for Post-Exercise Recovery: A Review with Emphasis on New Generation of Carbohydrates

1
Research Division, DBSS International SAS, Bogotá 110861, Colombia
2
Research Group in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá 110311, Colombia
3
Research Group in Physical Activity, Sports and Health Sciences (GICAFS), Universidad de Córdoba, Montería 230002, Colombia
4
kDNA Genomics, Joxe Mari Korta Research Center, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
5
Move Nutrition, Medellín 050021, Colombia
6
School of Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
7
Sport Genomics Research Group, Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
8
Phymo Lab, Physiology and Molecular Laboratory, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
9
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Human Clinical Research Facility, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010103
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 20 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 25 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Post-exercise recovery is a broad term that refers to the restoration of training capacity. After training or competition, there is fatigue accumulation and a reduction in sports performance. In the hours and days following training, the body recovers and performance is expected to return to normal or improve. ScienceDirect, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were reviewed to identify studies and position declarations examining the relationship between nutrition and sports recovery. As an evidence-based framework, a 4R’s approach to optimizing post-exercise recovery was identified: (i) Rehydration—a fundamental process that will depend on the athlete, environment and sports event; (ii) Refuel—the consumption of carbohydrates is not only important to replenish the glycogen reserves but also to contribute to the energy requirements for the immune system and tissue reparation. Several bioengineered carbohydrates were discussed but further research is needed; (iii) Repair—post-exercise ingestion of high-quality protein and creatine monohydrate benefit the tissue growth and repair; and (iv) Rest—pre-sleep nutrition has a restorative effect that facilitates the recovery of the musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Nutritional consultancy based on the 4R’s is important for the wise stewardship of the hydration, feeding, and supplementation strategies to achieve a timely recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: physiological adaptation; rehydration; carbohydrate conformation; protein synthesis; muscle soreness; sleep hygiene physiological adaptation; rehydration; carbohydrate conformation; protein synthesis; muscle soreness; sleep hygiene
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bonilla, D.A.; Pérez-Idárraga, A.; Odriozola-Martínez, A.; Kreider, R.B. The 4R’s Framework of Nutritional Strategies for Post-Exercise Recovery: A Review with Emphasis on New Generation of Carbohydrates. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010103

AMA Style

Bonilla DA, Pérez-Idárraga A, Odriozola-Martínez A, Kreider RB. The 4R’s Framework of Nutritional Strategies for Post-Exercise Recovery: A Review with Emphasis on New Generation of Carbohydrates. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):103. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bonilla, Diego A.; Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Odriozola-Martínez, Adrián; Kreider, Richard B. 2021. "The 4R’s Framework of Nutritional Strategies for Post-Exercise Recovery: A Review with Emphasis on New Generation of Carbohydrates" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010103

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop