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A Metabolically Healthy Profile Is a Transient Stage When Exercise and Diet Are Not Supervised: Long-Term Effects in the EXERDIET-HTA Study

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Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education and Sport-Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Section, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 01007 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba/Álava, Basque Country, Spain
2
School of Sport and Exercise, Oxstalls Campus, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester GL2 9HW, UK
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Cardiology Unit, Igualatorio Médico Quirúrgico (IMQ-Amárica), 01005 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba/Álava, Basque Country, Spain
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Clinical Trials Unit, Health and Quality of Life Area, TECNALIA, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba/Álava, Basque Country, Spain
5
Nefrology Department, Osakidetza, Hospital University of Araba, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba/Álava, Basque Country, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082830
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) is a regular state in people with primary hypertension (HTN), obesity, and who are physically inactive. To achieve and maintain a metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) state should be a main treatment goal. The aims of the study were (1) to determine differences in metabolic profiles of overweight/obese, physically inactive individuals with HTN following a 16-week (POST) supervised aerobic exercise training (SupExT) intervention with an attentional control (AC) group, and (2) to determine whether the changes observed were maintained following six months (6 M) of unsupervised time. Participants (n = 219) were randomly assigned into AC or SupExT groups. All participants underwent a hypocaloric diet. At POST, all participants received diet and physical activity advice for the following 6 M, with no supervision. All measurements were assessed pre-intervention (PRE), POST, and after 6 M. From PRE to POST, MUO participants became MHO with improved (p < 0.05) total cholesterol (TC, ∆ = −12.1 mg/dL), alanine aminotransferase (∆ = −8.3 U/L), glucose (∆ = −5.5 mg/dL), C-reactive protein (∆ = −1.4 mg/dL), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) compared to unhealthy optimal cut-off values. However, after 6 M, TC, glucose, and SBP returned to unhealthy values (p < 0.05). In a non-physically active population with obesity and HTN, a 16-week SupExT and diet intervention significantly improves cardiometabolic profile from MUO to MHO. However, after 6 M of no supervision, participants returned to MUO. The findings of this study highlight the need for regular, systematic, and supervised diet and exercise programs to avoid subsequent declines in cardiometabolic health. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; hypertension; inactivity; supervised exercise obesity; hypertension; inactivity; supervised exercise
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Corres, P.; Fryer, S.M.; Aguirre-Betolaza, A.M.; Gorostegi-Anduaga, I.; Arratibel-Imaz, I.; Pérez-Asenjo, J.; Francisco-Terreros, S.; Saracho, R.; Maldonado-Martín, S. A Metabolically Healthy Profile Is a Transient Stage When Exercise and Diet Are Not Supervised: Long-Term Effects in the EXERDIET-HTA Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2830.

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