Evacuation from Healthcare Facilities in Poland: Legal Preparedness and Preparation
2. Material and Methods
3. Evacuation of Hospital Facilities in Poland
4. Hospital Safety–Legal Liability
- Designation of personnel responsible for the evacuation of staff (and patients) and combating fires.
- Providing the necessary resources for emergency first-aid, firefighting, and evacuation of workers. The number of employees required to perform firefighting and evacuation activities is not specified in the regulations. The manager decides on their number and the training and equipment they should have, taking into account the type and level of risk involved. The manager is also obliged to inform other employees about who has been appointed to perform these tasks . The information should include:
- The name and surname of the designated employee(s);
- The place where the designated employee performs their work, e.g., the department;
- The employee’s company telephone number or other means of electronic communication.Employees required to perform firefighting and evacuation activities must have completed occupational health and safety training under the provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Economy on Training in Occupational Health and Safety .
- ensuring communication with external services specialized in particular in emergency first-aid, rescue and fire protection .
5. Hospital Evacuation Process
- In the event of an emergency or when hospital personnel receives information about potential danger and the need to evacuate, the personnel shall trigger a warning alarm (sirens, lights, voice announcements by the personnel of the facility, other methods, according to the capabilities/equipment of the facility).
- The fire brigade, the police, the director of the hospital, the head of the affected ward, as well as the other ward managers and the porters (and potentially other persons included in the evacuation plan), should be immediately notified of the event.
- Staff should begin the process of evacuation of patients as soon as possible, following the plan adopted by the medical facility.
- When the first unit of the State Fire Service arrives at the scene of the event, they take command of the evacuation procedure. Facility personnel should cooperate with the fire service at all times and carry out the orders of the fire officer in command. It should be remembered that the State Fire Service units arriving at the site do not know the facility, therefore, the logistical support of hospital staff is essential .
- It is assumed that about 50% of patients on the hospital premises can move around without the help of third parties. They should, therefore, be encouraged to self-evacuate. (Patients awaiting scheduled services should be discharged from the hospital and their scheduled treatment should be postponed to another date. Also, people who are in good health may be discharged home if they need to be evacuated) .
- The remaining patients, depending on their condition, should be transported to the hospital(s) and other places indicated in the evacuation plan. The most severely ill patients should be transported in ambulances under the care of medical personnel to the receiving hospital(s) with whom the respective medical facility has a cooperation agreement in case of evacuation. Patients who do not require medical transport may be transported to a safe place such as a hotel or school boarding house through city buses, taxis or other means of transport with which the evacuated medical entity has an agreement for emergency support.
- If, after the evacuation of all patients, it is possible for the medical personnel or technical/administrative staff to return safely, they should consider the feasibility of evacuating high-value medical equipment. Medical equipment can be extremely expensive and often fragile, it is important to take action to recover and protect it where feasible. Of course, this is only possible if it does not endanger the life and health of the staff. The most expensive equipment should be recovered first. Priority should be given to items that are lightweight and easy to carry .
6. Triage Management
7. Strengths, Limitations and Requirements for Future Research
8. Conclusions and Recommendations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Date, Location||HH II Facility||Cause||Additional Information|
|Hospital for the mentally and neurotically ill||Fire||Around 5.30 a.m., the roof caught fire.|
|Public institutions throughout the country, including hospitals||Report that explosives had been planted||Several dozen public institutions across the country received e-mails with the message:|
“at 12:00 the building will be blown up.”
|31/07–01/08/2013, Kwidzyń||Hospital||Report that explosives had been planted||Phone call message: “there is a bomb in the hospital. This is not a joke. I want a million zloty (Polish currency) or everything will blow up.”|
|Psychiatric hospital||Fire||Fire broke out mid-day causing a mattress fire, probably started by a patient.|
|20/10/2014, Dąbrowa Górnicza||Hospital||Fire||After midnight, a fire resulted from a patient lighting a cigarette. A 70-year-old man took off his oxygen mask to smoke resulting in the explosion of the oxygen cylinder.|
|10/09/2015, Oświęcim||Hospital||Fire||The perpetrator, a 50-year-old patient brought to the emergency ward in a state of alcohol intoxication. Setting the cubicle curtains on fire with a lighter.|
|Hospital||Fire||At 10:30 p.m., fire occurred probably set by a 50-year-old patient.|
|Hospital||Fire||Crane engine room fire from a short circuit of the electrical system. At the time of the event, all fire protection devices, resistance doors separating zones, had passed inspection. Thanks to the applied technical solutions and the efficiency of technical and administrative services, the danger was noticed and reported quickly, making it possible to reduce the range and losses to a minimum.|
|28/12/2017, Pruszków||Hospital||Report that explosives had been planted||The police report about a bomb being planted in a local hospital.|
|Pediatric hospital||Fire||The fire occurred in the anesthesiology and intensive care unit. 60 people evacuated, no casualties.|
|Hospital||Report that explosives had been planted||Midday anonymous call to the nurse’s duty room claiming an explosive device was placed in the surgical ward. Patients evacuated immediately. Pyrotechnicians search of the whole building failed to find any; no explosive device.|
|05/07/2018, Warszawa||Hospital||Report that explosives had been planted||A male phoned the hospital twice during the time that a well-known politician was a patient, stating that a bomb had been planted. No explosive device was found.|
|Social Welfare Home||Fire||10 p.m., roof fire.|
|Social Welfare Home||Fire||2 a.m., roof fire.|
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Goniewicz, K.; Misztal-Okońska, P.; Pawłowski, W.; Burkle, F.M., Jr.; Czerski, R.; Hertelendy, A.J.; Goniewicz, M. Evacuation from Healthcare Facilities in Poland: Legal Preparedness and Preparation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1779. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051779
Goniewicz K, Misztal-Okońska P, Pawłowski W, Burkle FM Jr., Czerski R, Hertelendy AJ, Goniewicz M. Evacuation from Healthcare Facilities in Poland: Legal Preparedness and Preparation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(5):1779. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051779Chicago/Turabian Style
Goniewicz, Krzysztof, Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Witold Pawłowski, Frederick M. Burkle Jr., Robert Czerski, Attila J. Hertelendy, and Mariusz Goniewicz. 2020. "Evacuation from Healthcare Facilities in Poland: Legal Preparedness and Preparation" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 5: 1779. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051779