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Open AccessReview

Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Molecular Biology, Biotechnology and Histology. University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, via S. Maria di Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Italian Group for Studying Autism-GISA, 25018 Brescia, Italy
3
Research Institute on Terrestrial Ecosystems (IRET), National Research Council of Italy, (CNR), via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
4
Biomedical Centre for Autism Research and Therapy, 70126 Bari, Italy
5
Centre for Autism—La Forza del Silenzio, 81036 Caserta, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030944
Received: 13 January 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Therapy for Autism and Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Neurodevelopmental lifelong pathologies defined by problems with social interaction, communication capacity and presence of repetitive/stereotyped clusters of behavior and interests are grouped under the definition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD prevalence is still increasing, indicating the need to identify specific biomarkers and novel pharmacotherapies. Neuroinflammation and neuro-immune cross-talk dysregulation are specific hallmarks of ASD, offering the possibility of treating these disorders by stem cell therapy. Indeed, cellular strategies have been postulated, proposed and applied to ASD. However, less is known about the molecular action mechanisms of stem cells. As a possibility, the positive and restorative effects mediated by stem cells could be due to their paracrine activity, by which stem cells produce and release several ameliorative and anti-inflammatory molecules. Among the secreted complex tools, exosomes are sub-organelles, enriched by RNA and proteins, that provide cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes could be the mediators of many stem cell-associated therapeutic activities. This review article describes the potential role of exosomes in alleviating ASD symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; stem cells; translational approach; neuroinflammation; autism spectrum disorder exosomes; stem cells; translational approach; neuroinflammation; autism spectrum disorder
MDPI and ACS Style

Alessio, N.; Brigida, A.L.; Peluso, G.; Antonucci, N.; Galderisi, U.; Siniscalco, D. Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 944.

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