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Article

Apoptotic Effect of 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on NIH/3T3 Cells

1
College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052, China
3
Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Antivirus Drug, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
4
IT’IS Foundation, Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030819
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 18 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
To investigate the effect of 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on apoptosis, we exposed NIH/3T3 cells at 1800 MHz with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg intermittently for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. After exposure, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell viability and apoptosis; the expression of p53, a molecule with the key role in apoptosis, was measured by real-time qPCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence; and images of the structure of the mitochondria, directly reflecting apoptosis, were captured by electron microscopy. The results showed that the viability of cells in the 12, 36, and 48 h exposure groups significantly decreased compared with the sham groups; after 48 h of exposure, the percentage of late apoptotic cells in the exposure group was significantly higher. Real-time qPCR results showed that p53 mRNA in the 48 h exposure group was 1.4-fold of that in the sham group; significant differences of p53 protein fluorescence expression were observed between the exposure groups and the sham groups after 24 h and 48 h. The mitochondrial swelling and vesicular morphology were found in the electron microscopy images after 48 h exposure. These findings demonstrated 1800 MHz, SAR 2 W/kg EMR for 48 h may cause apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells and that this apoptosis might be attributed to mitochondrial damage and upregulation of p53 expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic radiation; cell apoptosis; mitochondria; p53 electromagnetic radiation; cell apoptosis; mitochondria; p53
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, D.-Y.; Song, J.-D.; Liang, Z.-Y.; Oskouei, K.; Xiao, X.-Q.; Hou, W.-Z.; Li, J.-T.; Yang, Y.-S.; Wang, M.-L.; Murbach, M. Apoptotic Effect of 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on NIH/3T3 Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030819

AMA Style

Li D-Y, Song J-D, Liang Z-Y, Oskouei K, Xiao X-Q, Hou W-Z, Li J-T, Yang Y-S, Wang M-L, Murbach M. Apoptotic Effect of 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on NIH/3T3 Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(3):819. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030819

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Dan-Yang, Jing-Dong Song, Zhao-Yuan Liang, Kiana Oskouei, Xiang-Qian Xiao, Wen-Zhe Hou, Jin-Tao Li, Yi-Shu Yang, Ming-Lian Wang, and Manuel Murbach. 2020. "Apoptotic Effect of 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on NIH/3T3 Cells" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 3: 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030819

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