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Open AccessArticle

Time Spent at Work and Its Impact on the Academic Performance of Pharmacy Students

1
Division of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
2
Pharmacy Practice and Administration, University of Maryland Eastern Shore School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020496
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of time spent at work (workload) on the academic performance of pharmacy students. A cross-sectional 12-item survey was administered to pharmacy students at the end of the spring 2011 semester to primarily assess the type of employment and their weekly workload during the 2010–2011 academic year. Academic performance was determined by semester and cumulative grade point average (GPA). Descriptive statistics were performed. Stratified multiple linear regression models were obtained to assess the association between students’ workload and GPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare academic performance by workload after accounting for work type and potential covariates. Statistical significance was defined a priori as p < 0.05. For both fall and spring semesters, nonpharmacy-related work was significant and positively associated with GPA. Both semester GPAs were fairly similar among three student classifications (P1–P3). However, GPAs across both semesters varied by classification. The negative association of workload on GPA was significant in the fall but not in the spring semester. Although workload matters, future studies using a mixed-method approach might help explain the role of workload on the academic performance of pharmacy during the first three years of their professional training. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacy students; workload; academic performance; grade point average; professional years pharmacy students; workload; academic performance; grade point average; professional years
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okogbaa, J.; Allen, R.E.; Sarpong, D.F. Time Spent at Work and Its Impact on the Academic Performance of Pharmacy Students. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 496.

AMA Style

Okogbaa J, Allen RE, Sarpong DF. Time Spent at Work and Its Impact on the Academic Performance of Pharmacy Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2):496.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okogbaa, John; Allen, Rondall E.; Sarpong, Daniel F. 2020. "Time Spent at Work and Its Impact on the Academic Performance of Pharmacy Students" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 2: 496.

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