Difficulties of Online Physical Education Classes in Middle and High School and an Efficient Operation Plan to Address Them
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Data Collection
2.3. Data Analysis and Research Authenticity
3.1. Difficulties in Running Online Middle and High School Physical Education Classes
3.1.1. Conveying the Value of Physical Education
Teacher “A”: In online physical education classes, students had to participate alone and use the supplies at home, so it was inevitable that classes were limited. However, it was easy for me to give feedback because I run a real-time interactive class and students practice it immediately in line with my fitness program.
Teacher “C”: Real-time interactive classes can be effectively used in a small class, but it seems inefficient in a class of about 30 students. Thus, I used lecture-type content to provide explanations and demonstrations, present assignments, and give feedback.
Teacher “b”: I run a content-oriented class, but I had doubts about whether the values of physical education that we wanted to deliver were being conveyed well, given the limited environment and the fact that students had to practice alone.
Teacher “c”: I agree. I had actually planned a class in the competition area, but I could only do classes in the health area. I was worried that the students would feel too complacent about physical education through such classes.
Teacher “a”: I had no choice but to run really monotonous classes like juggling and “challenging” stay-at-home challenges that could be done in students’ own houses.
(From the first group interview).
There was an interaction between teachers and students when the teacher provided feedback by checking students’ online assignment performance. This interaction became an advantage of interactive physical education classes and assignment-oriented physical education classes. However, this was difficult because basic rapport was not developed through the online approach. In addition, the lack of interaction between the teacher and students in online courses made it difficult to convey the value of physical education.(From the in-depth interview of Teacher “a”).
3.1.2. Lack of Teacher Experience
I had to think about the content of physical education classes that I could do online with the start of online classes due to COVID-19, and about the content of the class that could be evaluated when students came to school later. The content of online physical education classes were selected based on individual sports that can be done while maintaining social distancing after school starts. However, as the use of various evaluations (individual evaluation, group evaluation, etc.) was limited due to restrictions on class activities by group, I was very worried about what to do. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “b”).
The filming and production of online class materials by the physical education teacher himself took two to three times longer to prepare (e.g., production and editing) than the existing physical education classes. Even if various content (YouTube, Internet materials, etc.) was used, it took a lot of time and effort to search for videos and materials that matched the teaching content of the physical education teacher’s class. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “C”).
I feel that it is more important than anything else for physical education teachers to develop their ability to efficiently use content in the areas where various aspects of physical activity are expressed and where the content of explanation, demonstration, and feedback is provided. This is an important point that I realized while lecturing in the content utilization training course due to the fact that physical education is unlike the general subjects. I believe that my experience in online physical education classes will definitely be an opportunity. (From the research journal of Teacher “A”).
The physical education teachers had to revise their education plans, courses, and evaluations several times in their online physical education classes. It is true that it is very confusing. I am going through a lot of difficulties because it is my first time using the content of online physical education classes and making evaluations. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “B”).
In order to evaluate a gymnastics movement, I asked the students to take a picture of themselves doing the gymnastics movement and upload it. However, there were limits in uploading the entire gymnastic movement, and so the evaluation was made in partial movements. In addition, there was too much restriction in providing feedback and evaluation for all images. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “c”).
It has been a while since online physical education classes started, but I don’t believe that the performance evaluation proposed by the Ministry of Education is a concrete plan yet. Evaluations must be done in terms of efficiency and expandability of online physical education classes. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “B”).
Teacher “A”: It is very difficult to check the performance of what students practiced in real-time interactive classes.
Teacher “a”: The home training and yoga practice scenes were evaluated in real time, but the evaluation took too long.
Teacher “B”: The performance assignment was checked through simple quizzes and discussions during the content-oriented class, but there were many difficulties in evaluating the actual activities and conducting detailed evaluations.
Teacher “b”: I believe that the evaluation is essential for online physical education classes. For self-directed learning, the evaluation parts associated with the assignment should be presented in various forms.
Teacher “C”: Many teachers spend too much time giving feedback and evaluations in assignment-oriented classes. Systematic supplementation is needed online.
Teacher “c”: Since there is a very limited amount of information that can be recorded in the Student Record in the existing evaluation, a new evaluation method that can evaluate and record the learning process should be introduced.(Summary of the discussion on evaluations in the second and third group interviews).
3.2. A Plan for the Efficient Operation of Middle and High School Online Physical Education Classes
3.2.1. Content that Conveys the Value of Physical Education
Teacher “b”: When conducting training for teachers, the issue was raised that no matter how much effort is made by the teacher to conduct a good class, it will be of no use if the students are not willing to listen. In such a case, the plan needs to be re-examined.
Teacher “C”: Yes, that is correct. If the online physical education class begins and no assignments are given, it would not be possible to check if the student is listening to the online class. Actually, some students do assignments without listening to assignments, which means you can set a group for the class and complete the group work outside of class. Thus, I have tried interactive classes among students to complete a set of assignments as a group.
Teacher “A”: That’s a good idea. Before discussing the value of physical education, it should be preceded by many educational devices and materials so that students can listen to online classes with an attitude toward self-directed learning.
Teacher “B”: Yes, I agree. The value of physical education should be naturally achieved in class, and a good class will be meaningless if the students do not have active learning attitudes.
Teacher “c”: Yes, I have tried to make changes in the existing physical education class by making students submit reports and videos based on their activities to make them actively participate in class. (From the fourth group interview).
Teacher “b” made great efforts to motivate and interest students by using physical education textbooks to explain theoretical aspects and presenting images to help students understand the material. Indirect experience based on direct experience of physical activity and the value of physical education were delivered through intensive classes in cognitive areas using physical education textbooks. (Analyzing the content of Teacher “b’s” online physical education class).
I do not think that it is necessary to teach the value of physical education centered on physical activity. Rather, I think that by running this online physical education class, I was able to deliver the value of integrating various topics through theoretical classes in physical education textbooks. I tried to convey the value of physical education by using various video images, arguments, discussions, and reporting that were not well utilized in existing physical education classes. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “b”).
3.2.2. Efforts to Cultivate Teacher Expertise
Considering that this is my first online class this year, the most distinguishing feature is that there is a place where physical education teachers from a variety of schools share the materials, content, and concerns regarding online physical education classes. Would you say that we were tightly united in a crisis? It seems to have served as an opportunity for physical education teachers to reduce the trial-and-error and to develop better physical education classes. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “C”).
The research participants’ videos showed that physical education teachers collaborated on making demonstrations and teaching, thereby producing more professional content by producing a joint video that fit the class subject. (From the researcher’s journal).
I was at a loss when I first started preparing for online physical education classes, but I received a lot of help from the teachers at the Physical Education Research Society. In addition, it really helped me cultivate my expertise while reflecting on my class. It was also very helpful to be able to view the classes of other physical education teachers, which used to be hard to see before. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “a”).
It was great to be able to look at the really valuable materials in The Council School Physical Education Promotion and the National Physical Education Teacher Group’s “katokbang”. It was good to see many physical education teachers collaborate and build their expertise in “an opportunity that lies in a crisis”. That is why I became confident in my class, too. (From the in-depth interview of Teacher “c”).
3.2.3. Preparation for Improved Evaluations
Teacher “A”: Teacher evaluation is conducted by looking directly at the student’s activities. Peer evaluation is conducted by students looking at one another.
Teacher “a”: Our evaluation method entails showing various videos that fit the topic of the class and talking about the feelings they elicit in real time.
Teacher “B”: There is no direct evaluation, and the achievement standards are reviewed by looking at the class and simply writing the overall content in the form of a report.
Teacher “b”: A self-assessment is conducted to determine whether the student has participated in class with an attitude toward self-directed learning, and whether the student has completed the assignments, but they are not reflected in the student’s score.
Teacher “C”: Evaluations cannot be made because it is an assignment-oriented class. Images of the student’s physical activity are used to deliver feedback through student self-assessment and teacher evaluation.
Teacher “c”: Based on the attached content of assignments carried out by the student, the course is recorded in the physical education section of the student’s Study Record.
(Summary of evaluation discussion in the fourth and fifth group interviews).
The above student faithfully carried out the assignments regarding national health gymnastics during online physical education classes, understood and analyzed teacher and peer evaluation feedback, and faithfully participated in the assignments. (From the examples of Study Records by Teacher “c”).
Teacher “A” evaluated interactive lessons in real time, but emphasis was placed on the students who delivered feedback and made corrections according to the feedback. In addition, a peer evaluation method was applied to the class in which feedback was provided by watching videos that in real-time interactive class, meaning other students watch the monitor video between students through informal evaluation. (Analyzing the content of Teacher “A’s” online physical education class).
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|Online Physical Education Class Type||School|
|Role||Gender||Participant||Research Participant Characteristics|
|Interactive PE Class||“N” Middle School|
|Teacher||Male||A||As a physical education teacher at “S” Middle School in the 7th year of his educational career, he runs a “Physical Enhancement Program”, an interactive PE class of about 20 students, utilizing Zoom. He is a training instructor for online PE content for physical education teachers nationwide and has a good understanding of the pros and cons of interactive PE classes.|
|“I” High School|
|Teacher||Female||a||As a physical education teacher for “I” High School in the 20th year of her educational career, she runs a “home training and yoga program” using Microsoft Teams, for a class of 15. While operating interactive teacher/student physical education classes, she tries to motivate student participation by using various video content and constantly strives for immediate feedback and interaction with students by asking questions via video.|
|Content-oriented physical education class||“J” Middle School|
|Teacher||Female||B||As a physical education teacher for “J” Middle School in the 11th year of her educational career, she runs a content-oriented physical education class using PPT and Open Broadcaster Software (OBS Studio) programs for a class of 30. She switched to a content-oriented physical education class after initially running an interactive PE class, in which many students found it difficult to participate.|
|“J” High School|
|Teacher||Male||b||As a physical education teacher at “J” High School in the 15th year of his educational career, he runs a content-oriented physical education class using YouTube and videos he has produced for a class of 30. He runs a class that combines theory and practice using physical education textbooks. He also works as a lecturer for the J-region Physical Education Research Association.|
|Assignment-oriented physical education class||“H” Middle School|
|Teacher||Male||C||As a physical education teacher at “H” High School in the 23rd year of his educational career, he runs an assignment-oriented physical education class using basic lecture-type content for a class of over 30. In addition to physical activity assignments, he offers online group learning assignments to students and provides feedback during class. Currently, he works as a lecturer in the operation of assignment-oriented physical education classes nationwide.|
|“G” High School|
|Teacher||Female||c||As a physical education teacher at “G” High School in the 4th year of her educational career, she runs an assignment-oriented physical education class for 30 students. The class is interactive and includes feedback from the teacher and focuses on “National Health Gymnastics” and “Creative Gymnastics” developed and practiced by students. The class uses Google Classroom and is equipped with assignment videos and explanations.|
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Jeong, H.-C.; So, W.-Y. Difficulties of Online Physical Education Classes in Middle and High School and an Efficient Operation Plan to Address Them. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197279
Jeong H-C, So W-Y. Difficulties of Online Physical Education Classes in Middle and High School and an Efficient Operation Plan to Address Them. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(19):7279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197279Chicago/Turabian Style
Jeong, Hyun-Chul, and Wi-Young So. 2020. "Difficulties of Online Physical Education Classes in Middle and High School and an Efficient Operation Plan to Address Them" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 19: 7279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197279