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Chemical Characterization and Seasonality of Ambient Particles (PM2.5) in the City Centre of Addis Ababa

1
School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa 9086, Ethiopia
2
Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
3
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
4
Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
5
Office of the Dean, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
6
Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
7
Wisconsin State Hygiene Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196998
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 13 September 2020 / Accepted: 19 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
Ambient air pollution is a growing public health concern in major African cities, including Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), where little information is available on fine particulate matter (PM2.5, with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) pollution. This paper aims to characterize annual PM2.5, including bulk composition and seasonal patterns, in Addis Ababa. We collected 24-h PM2.5 samples in the central city every 6 days from November 2015 to November 2016. The mean (±SD) daily PM2.5 concentration was 53.8 (±25.0) µg/m3, with 90% of sampled days exceeding the World Health Organization’s guidelines. Principal components were organic matter (OM, 44.5%), elemental carbon (EC, 25.4%), soil dust (13.5%), and SNA (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions, 8.2%). Higher PM2.5 concentrations were observed during the heavy rain season, while crustal dust concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 37.6%, with higher levels during dry months. Meteorological variables, vehicle emissions, biomass fuels, unpaved roads, and construction activity contribute to poor air quality. Compared to the Air Quality Index (AQI), 31% and 36% of observed days were unhealthy for everyone and unhealthy for sensitive groups, respectively. We recommend adopting effective prevention strategies and pursuing research on vehicle emissions, biomass burning, and dust control to curb air pollution in the city. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particulate matter; organic matter; organic carbon; elemental carbon; dust fine particulate matter; organic matter; organic carbon; elemental carbon; dust
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Tefera, W.; Kumie, A.; Berhane, K.; Gilliland, F.; Lai, A.; Sricharoenvech, P.; Samet, J.; Patz, J.; Schauer, J.J. Chemical Characterization and Seasonality of Ambient Particles (PM2.5) in the City Centre of Addis Ababa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6998.

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