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Open AccessArticle

A Novel Anti-Environmental Forest Experience Scale to Predict Preferred Pleasantness Associated with Forest Environments

1
Department of Forestry and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Łódzki 2, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Foundations, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759, USA
3
Faculty of Education, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China
4
Department of Tourism, Recreation and Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186731
Received: 12 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
In this study, a method for predicting the preferred pleasantness induced by different forest environments, represented by virtual photographs, was proposed and evaluated using a novel Anti-Environmental Forest Experience Scale psychometric test. The evaluation questionnaire contained twenty-one items divided into four different subscales. The factor structure was assessed in two separate samples collected online (sample 1: n = 254, sample 2: n = 280). The internal validity of the four subscales was confirmed using exploratory factor analysis. Discriminant validity was tested and confirmed using the Amoebic Self Scale (spatial–symbolic domain). Concurrent validity was confirmed using the Connectedness to Nature Scale. Predictive validity was based on an assessment of pleasantness induced by nine different photographs (control—urban landscapes, forest landscapes, dense forest landscapes), with subscales differently correlated with the level of pleasantness assessed for each photograph. This evaluation instrument is appropriate for predicting preferred pleasantness induced by different forest environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest environments; forest experience; psychometric test forest environments; forest experience; psychometric test
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Bielinis, E.; Xu, J.; Omelan, A.A. A Novel Anti-Environmental Forest Experience Scale to Predict Preferred Pleasantness Associated with Forest Environments. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6731.

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