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Review

A Systematic Review of the Health and Healthcare Inequalities for People with Intersex Variance

by 1,2,* and 1,2
1
School of Health Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN1 9PH, UK
2
Centre for Transforming Sexuality and Gender, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 0JG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186533
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 18 August 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Inequalities and Social Support among LGBT + Populations)
Extensive research documents the health inequalities LGBTI people experience, however far less is known for people with intersex variation. This paper presents a review of intersex health and healthcare inequalities by evaluating research published from 2012 to 2019. In total 9181 citations were identified with 74 records screened of which 16 were included. A synthesis of results spans nine quantitative, five qualitative and two narrative reviews. Literature was searched in Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane, PsycInfo and CINAHL. People with intersex variance experience a higher incidence of anxiety, depression and psychological distress compared to the general population linked to stigma and discrimination. Progressive healthcare treatment, including support to question normative binaries of sex and gender, aids understand of somatic intersex variance and non-binary gender identity, especially when invasive treatment options are avoided or delayed until individuals are able to self-identify or provide consent to treatment. Findings support rethinking sex and gender to reflect greater diversity within a more nuanced sex-gender spectrum, although gaps in research remain around the general health profile and the healthcare experiences of people with intersex variance. More large-scale research is needed, co-produced with peers who have lived experience of intersex variation to ensure policy, education and healthcare advances with greater inclusivity and ethical accountability. View Full-Text
Keywords: intersex; health inequalities; healthcare; LGBTI; ethical accountability; sex; gender intersex; health inequalities; healthcare; LGBTI; ethical accountability; sex; gender
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeeman, L.; Aranda, K. A Systematic Review of the Health and Healthcare Inequalities for People with Intersex Variance. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6533. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186533

AMA Style

Zeeman L, Aranda K. A Systematic Review of the Health and Healthcare Inequalities for People with Intersex Variance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6533. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186533

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zeeman, Laetitia, and Kay Aranda. 2020. "A Systematic Review of the Health and Healthcare Inequalities for People with Intersex Variance" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6533. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186533

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