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Narrative Review on Health-EDRM Primary Prevention Measures for Vector-Borne Diseases

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Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC), The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX37BN, UK
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JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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GX Foundation, Hong Kong SAR, China
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Accident & Emergency Medicine Academic Unit, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China
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Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
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Shenzhen Research Institute of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518172, China
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World Health Organization Centre for Health Development, Kobe 651-0073, Japan
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Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa 252-0882, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165981
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
Climate change is expanding the global at-risk population for vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The World Health Organization (WHO) health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM) framework emphasises the importance of primary prevention of biological hazards and its value in protecting against VBDs. The framework encourages stakeholder coordination and information sharing, though there is still a need to reinforce prevention and recovery within disaster management. This keyword-search based narrative literature review searched databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase and Medline between January 2000 and May 2020, and identified 134 publications. In total, 10 health-EDRM primary prevention measures are summarised at three levels (personal, environmental and household). Enabling factor, limiting factors, co-benefits and strength of evidence were identified. Current studies on primary prevention measures for VBDs focus on health risk-reduction, with minimal evaluation of actual disease reduction. Although prevention against mosquito-borne diseases, notably malaria, has been well-studied, research on other vectors and VBDs remains limited. Other gaps included the limited evidence pertaining to prevention in resource-poor settings and the efficacy of alternatives, discrepancies amongst agencies’ recommendations, and limited studies on the impact of technological advancements and habitat change on VBD prevalence. Health-EDRM primary prevention measures for VBDs require high-priority research to facilitate multifaceted, multi-sectoral, coordinated responses that will enable effective risk mitigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: health-EDRM; primary prevention; vector-borne disease; biological hazards; climate change; narrative review health-EDRM; primary prevention; vector-borne disease; biological hazards; climate change; narrative review
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Chan, E.Y.Y.; Sham, T.S.T.; Shahzada, T.S.; Dubois, C.; Huang, Z.; Liu, S.; Hung, K.K.; Tse, S.L.; Kwok, K.O.; Chung, P.-H.; Kayano, R.; Shaw, R. Narrative Review on Health-EDRM Primary Prevention Measures for Vector-Borne Diseases. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5981.

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