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Open AccessArticle

Challenges in Navigating the Health Care System: Development of an Instrument Measuring Navigation Health Literacy

1
School of Public Health, Interdisciplinary Centre for Health Literacy Research [ICHL], Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
2
Department Health and Society, The Austrian Public Health Institute [GÖG], 1010 Vienna, Austria
3
WHO-CC Health Promotion in Hospitals and Health Care, The Austrian Public Health Institute [GÖG], 1010 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165731
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 8 August 2020
Due to their rapid expansion and complexity, it is increasingly difficult for patients to orient themselves in health care systems. Therefore, patients require a high degree of health literacy, or more precisely, navigation health literacy (HL-NAV). The actual extent of HL-NAV of patients and citizens is still largely unknown due to the lack of adequate measurement instruments. Thus, within the new international Health Literacy Population Survey 2019 (HLS19), one aim was to develop a suitable instrument for measuring HL-NAV in the HLS19 the HL-NAV-HLS19. The item development was conducted by an international working group within the HLS19 Consortium led by the first and last authors. Methodologically, it is based on a scoping literature review, development of a conceptual framework for HL-NAV, and first item formation, as well as an evaluation by experts, stakeholders, focus groups, pre-test interviews, and continuously feedback from the HLS19 Consortium. HL-NAV was defined as the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply information on navigational issues, drawing on ten selected publications and the health literacy definition of the HLS-EU Consortium. Main tasks of HL-NAV at the system, organization, and interaction level were identified, to which first related items were assigned. Based on the feedback from experts, the focus group discussions, and the HLS19 Consortium, the instrument was slightly revised. Finally, twelve items proved to be feasible in the pre-test. The instrument will be used for the first time in the HLS19 survey and will provide first data on HL-NAV in general populations for the countries participating in HLS19. It is suited for cross-country comparisons and monitoring, as well as for intervention development. However, the instrument should be translated into and validated in further languages and countries for population samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: health literacy; hls-eu; navigation; orientation; health care system; instrument development; questionnaire; validation health literacy; hls-eu; navigation; orientation; health care system; instrument development; questionnaire; validation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Griese, L.; Berens, E.-M.; Nowak, P.; Pelikan, J.M.; Schaeffer, D. Challenges in Navigating the Health Care System: Development of an Instrument Measuring Navigation Health Literacy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5731. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165731

AMA Style

Griese L, Berens E-M, Nowak P, Pelikan JM, Schaeffer D. Challenges in Navigating the Health Care System: Development of an Instrument Measuring Navigation Health Literacy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5731. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165731

Chicago/Turabian Style

Griese, Lennert; Berens, Eva-Maria; Nowak, Peter; Pelikan, Jürgen M.; Schaeffer, Doris. 2020. "Challenges in Navigating the Health Care System: Development of an Instrument Measuring Navigation Health Literacy" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 16: 5731. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165731

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