Next Article in Journal
Schoolteachers’ Knowledge of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder—Current Status and Effectiveness of Knowledge Improvement Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Gut Hormones and Body Composition in Males with Obesity
Article

Measurement Invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) Across Seven Cross-National Representative Samples

1
WorkWell Research Unit, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2531, South Africa
2
Research Unit Occupational & Organizational Psychology and Professional Learning KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
4
Optentia Research Focus Area, Vanderbijlpark Campus, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa
5
Workability and Work Careers, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 00032 Helsinki, Finland
6
Department of Policy Management, Keio University, Fujisawa 252-0882, Japan
7
Department of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
8
Business School, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
9
Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL), Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
10
William James Center for Research, ISPA, Instituto Universitário, 1149-041 Lisbon, Portugal
11
Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-028 Lisbon, Portugal
12
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow 101000, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155604
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 26 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 3 August 2020
The aim of this study was to investigate the measurement invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) across seven cross-national representative samples. In this study, burnout was modeled as a second-order factor in line with the conceptual definition as a syndrome. The combined sample consisted of 10,138 participants from countries in Europe and Japan. The data were treated as ordered categorical in nature and a series of models were tested to find evidence for invariance. Specifically, theta parameterization was used in conjunction with the weighted least squares (mean- and variance adjusted) estimation method. The results showed supportive evidence that BAT-assessed burnout was invariant across the samples, so that cross-country comparison would be justifiable. Comparison of effect sizes of the latent means between countries showed that Japan had a significantly higher score on overall burnout and all the first-order factors compared to the European countries. The European countries all scored similarly on overall burnout with no significant difference but for some minor differences in first-order factors between some of the European countries. All in all, the analyses of the data provided evidence that the BAT is invariant across the countries for meaningful comparisons of burnout scores. View Full-Text
Keywords: burnout; measurement invariance; work stress; work overload; work-related well-being; structural equation modeling burnout; measurement invariance; work stress; work overload; work-related well-being; structural equation modeling
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

de Beer, L.T.; Schaufeli, W.B.; De Witte, H.; Hakanen, J.J.; Shimazu, A.; Glaser, J.; Seubert, C.; Bosak, J.; Sinval, J.; Rudnev, M. Measurement Invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) Across Seven Cross-National Representative Samples. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5604. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155604

AMA Style

de Beer LT, Schaufeli WB, De Witte H, Hakanen JJ, Shimazu A, Glaser J, Seubert C, Bosak J, Sinval J, Rudnev M. Measurement Invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) Across Seven Cross-National Representative Samples. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5604. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155604

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Beer, Leon T., Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Hans De Witte, Jari J. Hakanen, Akihito Shimazu, Jürgen Glaser, Christian Seubert, Janine Bosak, Jorge Sinval, and Maksim Rudnev. 2020. "Measurement Invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) Across Seven Cross-National Representative Samples" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 15: 5604. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155604

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop