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Article

Designing Effective Warnings about Addiction on the Patient Information Leaflet of Over-the-Counter Codeine Sold in England to University Students

by 1,†, 2,†, 1,* and 2
1
School of Design, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
School of Design, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155490
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(1) Background: The harm of misusing over-the-counter (OTC) codeine-containing medicines among university students in England is being increasingly recognized. Based on English university students, this paper aims to study the importance of information design on information communication, explore methods for effective warning design, and investigate university students’ perception of OTC codeine. (2) Methods: The effective warning design is addressed through case studies, answering correctness by the heat map generated from the eye-tracking experiment (ETE), and the total time spent on the tasks. User perceptions are made though online surveys. (3) Results: Information design significantly affects the way user processes information. Therefore, two emphasized warnings displayed in the headline, and the “possible side effect (PSE)” sections and warning signs of addiction presented under the PSE are suggested as effective ways to display warnings. For students’ perception of OTC codeine, 80% of university students are unfamiliar with the substance. After reading the patient information leaflets (PILs), 47% recommended tight regulation on codeine. (4) Conclusions: The misuse of OTC codeine could be a potential problem among English university students. The design of the PIL significantly influences the chance of unintentional medicine misuse. The display of warnings on the PILs of OTC codeine should be redesigned for better understanding. View Full-Text
Keywords: patient education; medication management and safety; university students; codeine; patient information leaflet; over the counter patient education; medication management and safety; university students; codeine; patient information leaflet; over the counter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, J.; Chen, Y.; Han, T.; Westland, S. Designing Effective Warnings about Addiction on the Patient Information Leaflet of Over-the-Counter Codeine Sold in England to University Students. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5490. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155490

AMA Style

Zhao J, Chen Y, Han T, Westland S. Designing Effective Warnings about Addiction on the Patient Information Leaflet of Over-the-Counter Codeine Sold in England to University Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5490. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Jianan; Chen, Yun; Han, Ting; Westland, Stephen. 2020. "Designing Effective Warnings about Addiction on the Patient Information Leaflet of Over-the-Counter Codeine Sold in England to University Students" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 15: 5490. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155490

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