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Review

A Mini-Review of Ixodes Ticks Climate Sensitive Infection Dispersion Risk in the Nordic Region

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CICERO Center for International Climate Research, P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway
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Nord University and Nordland Research Institute, P.O. Box 1490, 8049 Bodø, Norway
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Nordland Research Institute, P.O. Box 1490, 8049 Bodø, Norway
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The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway
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Norwegian Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 222 Skøyen, 0213 Oslo, Norway
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155387
Received: 25 June 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 23 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
Climate change in the Nordic countries is projected to lead to both wetter and warmer seasons. This, in combination with associated vegetation changes and increased animal migration, increases the potential incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBD) where already occurring, and emergence in new places. At the same time, vegetation and animal management influence tick habitat and transmission risks. In this paper, we review the literature on Ixodes ricinus, the primary vector for TBD. Current and projected distribution changes and associated disease transmission risks are related to climate constraints and climate change, and this risk is discussed in the specific context of reindeer management. Our results indicate that climatic limitations for vectors and hosts, and environmental and societal/institutional conditions will have a significant role in determining the spreading of climate-sensitive infections (CSIs) under a changing climate. Management emerges as an important regulatory “tool” for tick and/or risk for disease transfer. In particular, shrub encroachment, and pasture and animal management, are important. The results underscore the need to take a seasonal view of TBD risks, such as (1) grazing and migratory (host) animal presence, (2) tick (vector) activity, (3) climate and vegetation, and (4) land and animal management, which all have seasonal cycles that may or may not coincide with different consequences of climate change on CSI migration. We conclude that risk management must be coordinated across the regions, and with other land-use management plans related to climate mitigation or food production to understand and address the changes in CSI risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick-borne diseases (TBD); climate-sensitive infections (CSIs); Ixodes ricinus; climate change; Nordic tick-borne diseases (TBD); climate-sensitive infections (CSIs); Ixodes ricinus; climate change; Nordic
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Oort, B.E.H.; Hovelsrud, G.K.; Risvoll, C.; Mohr, C.W.; Jore, S. A Mini-Review of Ixodes Ticks Climate Sensitive Infection Dispersion Risk in the Nordic Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155387

AMA Style

van Oort BEH, Hovelsrud GK, Risvoll C, Mohr CW, Jore S. A Mini-Review of Ixodes Ticks Climate Sensitive Infection Dispersion Risk in the Nordic Region. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155387

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Oort, Bob E.H., Grete K. Hovelsrud, Camilla Risvoll, Christian W. Mohr, and Solveig Jore. 2020. "A Mini-Review of Ixodes Ticks Climate Sensitive Infection Dispersion Risk in the Nordic Region" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 15: 5387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155387

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