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Article

Breeding Habitat Preferences of Major Culicoides Species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Germany

1
Research Area 2 “Land Use and Governance”, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
2
Working Group “Epidemiology”, Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany
3
Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145000
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 6 July 2020 / Published: 11 July 2020
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopognidae) are demonstrably or putatively involved in the transmission of both bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg viruses (SBV) in Central Europe. Although these insects are ubiquitous in Europe, relatively little is known about their requirements in terms of breeding habitats and substrates. Culicoides species composition and relative abundance in potential breeding habitats were therefore studied at various locations in Northeastern Germany and one location in Western Germany by emergence trap collections. Forty-three potential breeding sites were analyzed in ten landscape structures, with 28,091 adult biting midges emerging from them. Among these, 2116 specimens belonged to the genus Culicoides. Species of the culicoid subgenus Avaritia were most abundant (70.6% of all specimens) and widespread (91.6% of all sites), while the subgenus Culicoides accounted for 15.6% of the specimens registered but emerged from 70.8% of all sites sampled. Culicoides species of other subgenera were collected in 75.0% of all studied sites, with a relative abundance of 8.7%. The results indicate that various types of dung, but probably also some landscape habitats, offer suitable substrates for the development of potential Culicoides vector species. Adaptations in dung management on farms and landscape design and use might therefore be appropriate approaches to reduce the risk of BTV or SBV transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: bluetongue; breeding sites; Culicoides; biting midge; dung; Germany; habitat; Obsoletus Complex; Schmallenberg disease; vector management bluetongue; breeding sites; Culicoides; biting midge; dung; Germany; habitat; Obsoletus Complex; Schmallenberg disease; vector management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Werner, D.; Groschupp, S.; Bauer, C.; Kampen, H. Breeding Habitat Preferences of Major Culicoides Species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Germany. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5000. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145000

AMA Style

Werner D, Groschupp S, Bauer C, Kampen H. Breeding Habitat Preferences of Major Culicoides Species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Germany. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5000. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Werner, Doreen, Sarah Groschupp, Christian Bauer, and Helge Kampen. 2020. "Breeding Habitat Preferences of Major Culicoides Species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Germany" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5000. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145000

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