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Open AccessArticle

Alcohol Consumption Reported during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Initial Stage

Institute of Psychology, University of Lodz, 91-433 Lodz, Poland
The President Stanisław Wojciechowski State University of Applied Sciences in Kalisz, 62-800 Kalisz, Poland
Copernicus Memorial Multidisciplinary Comprehensive Cancer and Traumatology Center, 91-433 Lodz, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4677;
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work and Addictions: From Biology to Practice)
Physical health is not the only area affected by the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. There are also other consequences that have globally affected many millions at other levels, namely: Societal, political, economic, and cultural. This study aims to survey alcohol drinking throughout the pandemic so as to investigate those factors considered most relevant; i.e., sociodemographic and clinical. A longitudinal study was designed. The first (or initial) stage was completed between April 10–20 2020 on 443 subjects during the enforcement of the “Lockdown” in Poland. The second stage will be due in June 2020. As well as an in-house questionnaire, the study used: The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief COPE Inventory (Mini COPE). Alcohol was the most commonly used psychoactive substance (73%) identified. More than 30% changed their drinking habits because of the pandemic, with 16% actually drinking less, whilst 14% did so more. The former group was significantly younger than the latter. Amongst the stress-related coping strategies, it was found that current alcohol drinkers were significantly less able to find anything positive about the pandemic situation (positive reframing) and were mentally less able to cope. Those drinking more now were found to have been drinking more intensively before the pandemic started. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; mental health; stress; COVID-19 alcohol; mental health; stress; COVID-19
MDPI and ACS Style

Chodkiewicz, J.; Talarowska, M.; Miniszewska, J.; Nawrocka, N.; Bilinski, P. Alcohol Consumption Reported during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Initial Stage. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4677.

AMA Style

Chodkiewicz J, Talarowska M, Miniszewska J, Nawrocka N, Bilinski P. Alcohol Consumption Reported during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Initial Stage. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(13):4677.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chodkiewicz, Jan; Talarowska, Monika; Miniszewska, Joanna; Nawrocka, Natalia; Bilinski, Przemyslaw. 2020. "Alcohol Consumption Reported during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Initial Stage" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 13: 4677.

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