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Open AccessArticle

Hyperhomocysteinemia is Associated with Inflammation, Bone Resorption, Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency and MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Postmenopausal Women with Decreased Bone Mineral Density

1
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
2
Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Center for the diagnosis and treatment of Osteoporosis, AUSL 04, 64100 Teramo, Italy
3
Pneumology Unit, AUSL 04, 64100 Teramo, Italy
4
Department of Legal and Social Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 65127 Pescara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124260
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Women's Health)
Osteoporosis is an age-related bone disease, affecting mainly postmenopausal women, characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and consequent risk of fractures. Homocysteine (Hcy), a sulfur-aminoacid whose serum level is regulated by methylenetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity and vitamin B12 and folate as cofactors, is a risk factor for inflammatory diseases. Literature data concerning the link between Hcy and osteoporosis are still debated. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship among Hcy and BMD, inflammation, vitamin status and bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In 252 postmenopausal women, BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In addition to serum Hcy, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase-BAP, osteocalcin-OC, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), vitamin deficiencies and MTHFR-C677T polymorphism were evaluated. Hcy, inflammation, bone resorption markers and prevalence of C677T polymorphism were higher, whereas vitamin D, B12, folate, and bone formation markers were lower in women with decreased BMD compared to those with normal BMD. Our results suggest a significant association between Hcy, BMD and inflammation in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The regulation of Hcy overproduction and the modulation of the inflammatory substrate could represent additional therapeutic approaches for osteoporosis prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; hyperhomocysteinemia; inflammation; vitamin D; bone; vitamin B12; folate; MTHFR; postmenopausal women; bone mineral density osteoporosis; hyperhomocysteinemia; inflammation; vitamin D; bone; vitamin B12; folate; MTHFR; postmenopausal women; bone mineral density
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De Martinis, M.; Sirufo, M.M.; Nocelli, C.; Fontanella, L.; Ginaldi, L. Hyperhomocysteinemia is Associated with Inflammation, Bone Resorption, Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency and MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Postmenopausal Women with Decreased Bone Mineral Density. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4260.

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