“You Need ID to Get ID”: A Scoping Review of Personal Identification as a Barrier to and Facilitator of the Social Determinants of Health in North America
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Definitions of Key Terms
2.2. Search Strategy
2.3. Relevance Screening
2.4. Data Charting
3.1. Gaining and Retaining Identification
[The young women] claimed that the biggest structural barriers to care [that they identified] at many hospitals or clinics not designed for homeless youth were questions over consent for care, being asked to provide addresses and an identification (ID) card, and source of insurance or payment  (p. 169).
Even a modest fee can make it difficult for a homeless young person to obtain identification—and in many states, the cost of obtaining an ID card is far from modest  (p. 18).
3.2. Access to Health and Social Services
Identification is something that you often need when you go to clinics and a lot of our [clients] do not have ID—whether or not they even have Alberta Health Care cards with them or have even applied for their Alberta Health Care cards. We have a lot of out-of-province clients that come through, a lot of immigrants that come through so then that whole issue is do they even get access to certain types of care just due to not having the proper documents  (p. 7).
Perhaps surprisingly, structural barriers cited by the youth stemmed not from a paucity of agencies or resources but conversely from the presence of too many agencies with endless bureaucratic requirements involving interagency referrals, the need for identification cards, time-consuming paperwork, and lack of continuity of care  (p. 158).
So you have to go to a regular clinic and they take forever to register you and they want to know why you don’t have insurance and then they make you sit there another 45 minutes until they call someone to figure out what it is. I’ve had so many bills from places like that so many notices. I always told them from the beginning, ‘I’m homeless. I don’t have an ID. You can’t call my parents; they will not say they’re my guardians. They will not take responsibility for me. I don’t have insurance.’ You know—it’s like, ‘Can you please? I’m bleeding here - can you help me’?  (p. 169).
Returning offenders who have mental illness are often eligible for several public assistance programs, including General Assistance, food stamps, and Medicaid. In the state where the study site is located, all such programs are administered by the state’s public assistance department, which also oversees the application process and thereby controls access to services. Identification requirements are a central feature of the application process, and these requirements emerged early in the study as a source of problems for clients”  (p. 117).
3.3. Facilitating Identification Programs and Services
In order to get a fee waiver, a homeless person provides a letter from a shelter employee or other service provider indicating that he is homeless and requesting a fee waiver  (p. 21).
Study Limitations and Future Directions
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Details for Relevant Findings in Reviewed Literature
|Academic Literature on PID|
|No.||Author (Year)||Country||Approach/Method||Objective||Relevant Findings|
|1||Appel et al. (2004) ||USA||Qual/interviews with outreach staff (n = 55) and intravenous drug user (IDU) clients (n = 144)||Obstacles to AOD (alcohol & other drug) enrollment inherent in policies, practices, and attitudes of institutions||Lack of ID among top five barriers to enrollment and completion of drug abuse treatment program; client suggestions for program facilitators include “admit people who have no PID or documents”|
|2||Asanin et al. (2008) ||Canada||Qual/focus groups (n = 8) with 58 immigrants from diverse race/ethnic backgrounds||Explore immigrants’ perceptions of barriers to access to healthcare||Delay in receiving provincial health card results in either lack of healthcare access for several months or in paying for private health insurance, which is costly for many recent immigrants|
|3||Butters et al. (2003) ||Canada||Qual/interviews with female street-involved crack users (n = 30)||Examine healthcare needs and experiences women who were involved in the street life of crack and prostitution||ID a key factor affecting access to health care; to get a health card you need ID and an address (which homeless people do not have); 43% did not have a health card for reasons including never had one, lost, stolen, or destroyed|
|4||Campbell et al. (2015) ||Canada||Qual/interviews and focus groups with homeless individuals (n = 11) and healthcare providers (n = 11)||Explore perceived healthcare needs and barriers among individuals experiencing homelessness||Many providers and clients described that an important barrier to accessing healthcare services is lack of government-issued ID, including provincial healthcare card; missing/stolen ID cited as common problem|
|5||Cheng et al. (2016) ||USA||Quant/analysis of electronic database (n = 11,989)||Evaluate associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity||Six percent were missing paternal data; missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity|
|6||Christiani et al. (2008) ||USA||Qual/focus groups with homeless drug-using youth (n = 54)||Investigate barriers and facilitators in delivery of healthcare services from the perspectives of homeless youth||Structural barriers include agencies with multiple bureaucratic requirements involving interagency referrals, need for ID cards, onerous paperwork, and lack of continuity of care|
|7||Daiski (2005) ||Canadian||Qual/interviews and focus groups with client volunteers (n = 58)||Evaluate effectiveness of the Health Bus, a mobile healthcare unit||At one location, only half of the participants possessed a health card. Health cards and other ID often stolen or lost; the Health Bus was the only healthcare people without a health card accessed; another barrier is attitude of health care workers|
|8||Ensign et al. (2002) ||USA||Qual/interviews with homeless young women (n = 20)||Explore common sources of advice, health-seeking behaviors, and access to care issues of homeless adolescent women||Participants said that the biggest structural barriers to care at many hospitals or clinics not designed for homeless youth were questions over consent for care, being asked to provide addresses and an ID card, and source of insurance or payment|
|9||Gany et al. (2013) ||USA||Quant/assessment survey administered in-person to randomly selected food pantries (n = 47)||Analyze how well food pantries accommodate the service needs of medically ill clients||Twenty-nine food pantries (62%) had an identification requirement, including six (or 21%) requiring a government-issued photo ID; requirements for government-issued ID likely to discourage undocumented immigrants|
|10||Gordon (2012) ||Canada||Qual/interviews with 102 people visiting ID clinic established to provide basic ID card provided by municipality free of charge||Explore reasons that people lack ID, impact of no ID, and significance that new ID card has for them||Main reasons for ID loss: theft, carelessness, police interaction, drug/alcohol event; main impact of no ID: banking, healthcare, housing, alcohol/cigarette purchase, police checks, treaty benefits, driving, money mart usury; significance of new ID: member of community, access to services|
|11||Heyman (2009) ||USA||Mixed/survey of uninsured immigrants (n = 84); interviews with same (n = 52)||Determine healthcare-seeking paths by unauthorized migrants, barriers encountered, and resilience factor of learning and gaining confidence about available services||Participants reported increased demands for PID in order to get healthcare (e.g., employment history, social security number, and citizenship or legal residence ID. “Ernesto has never had these documents…but this documentation requirement is now a basis for denial of services that he previously received.” He remarked, “They [the hospital] are asking for things I cannot produce” (p. 11)|
|12||Hwang et al. (2000) ||Canada||Quant/document review of patient encounter and billing records (n = 45)||Document how frequent physicians are not paid for the care they provide to homeless people in outreach settings||Study finds high proportion of homeless people without valid health insurance cards; 46% of encounters with patients without a health card at all, though reasons not specified|
|13||Hwang et al. (2010) ||Canada||Quant/survey of homeless individuals (n = 1169)||Examine extent of unmet needs and barriers to accessing healthcare among homeless people within a universal health insurance system||Three hundred and fifteen participants were not in possession of their health insurance card; often it was lost or stolen|
|14||Khandor et al. (2011) ||Canada||Quant/survey of homeless adults (n = 385)||Examine active healthcare-seeking paths of unauthorized migrants, range of barriers that they encounter, and resilience factor of learning and gaining confidence about available services||One hundred and twenty-four (34%) participants were not in possession of a health card; most of the people without a health card reported that their card had been lost (48%) or stolen (18%)|
|15||Kurtz et al. (2005) ||USA||Mixed/surveys of street-based female sex workers (n = 586); focus groups with same (n = 25)||Assess health and social service needs and barriers to access among street-based women sex workers||Lack of legal ID, address, and/or citizenship status causes women to be ineligible for most employment. Lack of space for ID storage is also a problem, as sex workers are often robbed|
|16||LeBrón et al. (2018) ||USA||Theoretical/not stated||Describe three ways government-issued ID requirements have restricted access to health resources||An estimated 11% of voting-age US citizens lack ID, with certain communities additionally marginalized due to lacking a permanent address (e.g., people who are homeless or experienced catastrophic events like fire, domestic violence, environmental disaster)|
|17||McKeary et al. (2010) ||Canada||Qual/interviews with healthcare providers (n = 14)||Explore the systemic barriers to healthcare access experienced by refugee populations||Lack of insurance coverage also created a barrier to care (6.3%) six months after arrival, but this disappeared with access to a provincial health card granted after residency waiting period. Additional ID barriers include burdensome paperwork, unclear eligibility rules, poverty, isolation, lack of access to transportation, language, and illiteracy|
|18||Melnik et al. (2015) ||USA||Quant/survey of birth registrars (n = 127)||Better understand the current birth registration practices and barriers in accurate and complete reporting||Incomplete information provided by medical staff, birth data are located in multiple systems, conflicting birth data information from different sources, staff resources are inadequate, need for improvement of hospital electronic data systems|
|19||Pauly (2008) ||Canada||Theoretical/not stated||Examine harm reduction values and conceptions of justice as framework for addressing inequities in health and healthcare for street-involved drug users||Lack of ID is barrier for accessing health care services or gaining prescription coverage|
|20||Shelton (2015) ||USA||Qual/interviews with young people (n = 27)||Investigate the lived experiences of transgender and gender expansive young people with histories of homelessness||Some participants arrived at shelters lacking ID; without ID documents that match their self-designated gender and presentation, transgender and gender expansive young people face harassment and discrimination when applying for jobs. Lack of accurate ID increases likelihood they will experience misgendering during hiring process and while on the job, if hired. Frequent experiences of cisgenderism lead some to not seek employment|
|21||Smith et al. (2010) ||USA||Quant/comparison of health plan records with hospital birth certificate records of 325,810 children born between 1998–2008||Investigate validity of race and ethnic information in health plan administrative records and if this affects understanding of race/ethnic disparities in healthcare utilization||Birth certificates have more accurate data on parental status at time of birth and race/ethnicity; easier access to birth certificates for birth information will improve health access and health outcomes; inconsistent PID information presents difficulties later in life if people need to replace PID|
|22||Wilson (2009) ||USA||Mixed/interviews with staff (n = 10) and clients (n = 14) of prisoner re-entry program; document review; ethnographic observation||Examine range of help-seeking activities; identify dynamics that facilitate access to public services for recently incarcerated people re-entering society||Lack of ID is key barrier for returning offenders; ID often lost during arrest and incarceration or due to mental health challenges. Without ID it is difficult for offenders to apply for ID, a cycle that leads to delays in access to health and social services for people trying to re-enter society and get jobs|
|Gray Literature on PID|
|No.||Author (Year)||Country||Approach/Methods||Objective||Relevant Findings|
|23||Goldblatt et al. (2011) ||Canada||Qual/interviews with staff from social housing support organizations (n = 48)||Identify systematic barriers to housing experienced by service providers||Lack of ID is key barrier to accessing social housing and income support|
|24||Hussey (2015) ||USA||Not stated||Identify structural barriers that LGBT youth face in attaining ID and identify policy recommendations for overcoming barriers||Barriers include age restrictions, fees, lack of address, as well as unique barriers for certain communities (e.g., transgender youth, undocumented youth, system involved youth). Recommendations include: establish municipal ID programs that can be tailored to community needs; reduce or waive fees for ID; easing parental approval for ID for a minor, as many LGBTQ youths experience homelessness due to family rejection|
|25||Kopec et al. (2016) ||Canada||Qual/interviews with staff at four ID banks||Explore avenues available for creating an ID bank for homeless and vulnerable clients||Main barriers are funding and staffing, though once established, ID storage can be inexpensive|
|26||NLCHP (2004) ||USA||Quant/survey of service providers (n = 56) in 16 states that serve total of 25,647 clients per year||Assess nature and extent of the problems faced by homeless persons without photo ID||Around one-tenth (10.7%) of clients lacked photo ID; barriers include lack of address and high cost/fees; implications of not having ID include: denied access to benefits and services and problems with law enforcement|
|27||NNY (2016) ||USA||Not stated||Provide overview of issues related to minors obtaining an ID and related recommendations for policy makers||Four main barriers to obtaining ID: needing/obtaining birth certificate, age limits and parental consent, fees, and proof of residency|
|28||Shepherd et al. (2003) ||Canada||Not stated||Provide updated information on state of poverty, housing, and homelessness in Toronto||Homeless people at greater risk of having ID, such as their health card, stolen or lost; yet they are most vulnerable and likely to require healthcare|
|29||Shartal et al. (2004) ||Canada||Qual/interviews with homeless people with disability (n = 85)||Describe experiences of homeless people with disabilities unable to access Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP)||Homeless people often do not possess ID and financial documents required to apply for the program; thus, ID is structural barrier for most marginalized people|
|30||The Street Health Report (2007) ||Canada||Quant/survey of homeless adults (n = 368)||To fill a gap in current knowledge about the health status of homeless people in Toronto||Six percent of respondents said lack of ID is reason for homelessness; ID lost or taken away by authorities; importance of ID for accessing social services|
|31||United Way (2013) ||Canada||Not stated||Not stated||Barriers include cost and need of address to get ID|
- Harper, J. Identity Crisis: How Identification is Overused and Misunderstood; Cato Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Bennett, C.J.; Lyon, D. Playing the Identity Card: Surveillance, Security and Identification in Global Perspective; Routledge: London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Rygiel, K. Protecting and Proving Identity: The Biopolitics of Waging War through Citizenship in the Post-9/11 era. In (En) Gendering the War on Terror: War Stories and Camouflaged Politics; Rygiel, K., Hunt, K., Eds.; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2008; pp. 145–168. [Google Scholar]
- Taylor, J.A.; Lips, M.; Organ, J. Identification practices in government: Citizen surveillance and the quest for public service improvement. Identity Inf. Soc. 2008, 1, 135–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pais, M.S. Editorial: Birth Registration: Right from the Start. Innocenti Dig. 2002, 9, 1–32. [Google Scholar]
- Sanders, C.; Burnett, K. A case study in personal identification and social determinants of health: Unregistered births among Indigenous people in northern Ontario. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 567. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lorde, A. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches; Crossing Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Kulig, J.C.; Williams, A.M. Health in Rural Canada; UBC Press: Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Adelson, N. The embodiment of inequity: Health disparities in Aboriginal Canada. Can. J. Public Health 2005, 96 (Suppl. S2), S45–S61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gracey, M.; King, M. Indigenous health part 1: Determinants and disease patterns. Lancet 2009, 374, 65–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parkins, J.R.; Reed, M.G. Social Transformations in Rural Canada: Community, Cultures, and Collective Action; UBC Press: Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Arksey, H.; O’Malley, L. Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. 2005, 8, 19–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Colquhoun, H.L.; Levac, D.; O’Brien, K.K.; Straus, S.; Tricco, A.C.; Perrier, L.; Kastner, M.; Moher, D. Scoping reviews: Time for clarity in definition, methods, and reporting. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2014, 67, 1291–1294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tricco, A.C.; Lillie, E.; Zarin, W.; O’Brein, K.K.; Colquhoun, H.; Levac, D.; Moher, D.; Peters, M.D.J.; Horsley, T.; Weeks, L.; et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Ann. Intern. Med. 2018, 169, 467–473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Godin, K.; Stapleton, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Hanning, R.M.; Leatherdale, S.T. Applying systematic review search methods to the grey literature: A case study examining guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada. Syst. Rev. 2015, 4, 138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Braun, V.; Clarke, V.; Hayfield, N.; Terry, G. Thematic analysis. In Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences; Liamputtong, P., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2018; pp. 1–18. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, D.J.T.; O’Neill, B.G.; Gibson, K.; Thurston, W.E. Primary healthcare needs and barriers to care among Calgary’s homeless populations. BMC Fam. Pract. 2015, 16, 139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hwang, S.W.; Ueng, J.J.M.; Chiu, S.; Kiss, A.; Tolomiczenko, G.; Cowan, L.; Levinson, W.; Redelmeier, D.A. Universal health insurance and health care access for homeless persons. Am. J. Public Health 2010, 100, 1454–1461. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wilson, A.B. It takes ID to get ID: The new identity politics in services. Soc. Serv. Rev. 2009, 83, 111–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- LeBrón, A.M.W.; Lopez, W.D.; Cowan, K.; Novak, N.L.; Temrowski, O.; Ibarra-Frayre, M.; Delva, J. Restrictive ID policies: Implications for health equity. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 2018, 20, 255–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Evans, R.D.; Forsyth, C.J. Risk Factors, Endurance of victimization, and survival strategies: The impact of the structural location of men and women on their experiences within homeless milieus. Sociol. Spectr. 2004, 24, 479–505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Daiski, I. Perspectives of homeless people on their health and health needs priorities. J. Adv. Nurs. 2007, 58, 273–281. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Novac, S.; Hermer, J.; Paradis, E.; Kellen, A. More Sinned Against than Sinning? Homeless People as Victims of Crime and Harassment. In Finding Home: Policy Options for Addressing Homelessness in Canada (E-Book); Hulchanski, J.D., Campsie, P., Chau, S., Hwang, S., Paradis, E., Eds.; Cities Centre, University of Toronto: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2009; Chapter 7.2; Available online: https://www.homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/7.2%20Novac%20et%20al.%20-%20Homeless%20People%20as%20Victims%20of%20Crime.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Butters, J.; Erickson, P.G. Meeting the health care needs of female crack users: A Canadian example. Women Health 2003, 37, 1–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hussey, H. Expanding ID Card Access for LGBT Homeless Youth; Center for American Progress: Washington, DC, USA, 2016; Available online: https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/01071118/IDhomelessLGBT.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- United Way. Policy Brief on Government Identification; United Way Centraide Canada: Calgary, AB, Canada, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Gordon, R. Community, use it or lose it? Anthropologica 2012, 54, 253–266. [Google Scholar]
- Ensign, J.; Panke, A. Barriers and bridges to care: Voices of homeless female adolescent youth in Seattle, Washington, USA. J. Adv. Nurs. 2002, 37, 166–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. Photo Identification Barriers Faced by Homeless Persons: The Impact of September 11; Washington, DC, USA, 2004; Available online: https://nlchp.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ID_Barriers.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The ‘Rights’ Start to Life: A Statistical Analysis of Birth Registration; UNICEF: New York, NY, USA, 2005; p. 6. Available online: https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_25248.html (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Heyman, J.M.C.; Núñez, G.G.; Talavera, V. Healthcare access and barriers for unauthorized immigrants in El Paso County, Texas. Fam. Community Health 2009, 32, 4–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- National Network for Youth. A State-By-State Guide to Obtaining ID Cards; National Network for Youth: Washington, DC, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Kurtz, S.P.; Surratt, H.L.; Kiley, M.C.; Inciardi, J.A. Barriers to health and social services for street-based sex workers. J. Health Care Poor Underserved 2005, 16, 345–361. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Asanin, J.; Wilson, K. ‘I spent nine years looking for a doctor’: Exploring access to health care among immigrants in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Soc. Sci. Med. 2008, 66, 1271–1283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cheng, E.R.; Hawkins, S.S.; Rifas-Shiman, S.L.; Gillman, M.W.; Taveras, E.M. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. BMC Public Health 2016, 16, 453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Melnik, T.A.; Guldal, C.G.; Schoen, L.D.; Alicandro, J.; Henfield, P. Barriers in accurate and complete birth registration in New York state. Matern. Child Health J. 2015, 19, 1943–1948. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Smith, N.; Iyer, R.L.; Langer-Gould, A.; Getahun, D.T.; Strickland, D.; Jacobsen, S.J.; Chen, W.; Koebnick, C. Health plan administrative records versus birth certificate records: Quality of race and ethnicity information in children. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2010, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Khandor, E.; Mason, K.; Chambers, C.; Rossiter, K.; Cowan, L.; Hwang, S.W. Access to primary health care among homeless adults in Toronto, Canada: Results from the street health survey. Open Med. 2011, 5, e94–e103. [Google Scholar]
- Shelton, J. Transgender youth homelessness: Understanding programmatic barriers through the lens of cisgenderism. Child Youth Serv. Rev. 2015, 59, 10–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Appel, P.W.; Ellison, A.A.; Jansky, H.K.; Oldak, R. Barriers to enrollment in drug abuse treatment and suggestions for reducing them: Opinions of drug injecting street outreach clients and other system stakeholders. Am. J. Drug Alcohol. Abuse 2004, 30, 129–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Daiski, I. The health bus: Healthcare for marginalized populations. Policy Polit. Nurs. Pract. 2005, 6, 30–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Christiani, A.; Hudson, A.L.; Nyamathi, A.; Mutere, M.; Sweat, J. Attitudes of homeless and drug-using youth regarding barriers and facilitators in delivery of quality and culturally sensitive health care. J. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr Nurs. 2008, 21, 154–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Street Health Report. The Street Health Report. The Health of Toronto’s Homeless Population. In Finding Home: Policy Options for Addressing Homelessness in Canada (E-Book); Hulchanski, J.D., Campsie, P., Chau, S., Hwang, S., Paradis, E., Eds.; Cities Center, University of Toronto: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2007; Chapter 2.2; Available online: https://www.homelesshub.ca/resource/22-health-toronto’s-homeless-population (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Gany, F.; Bari, S.; Crist, M.; Moran, A.; Rastogi, N.; Leng, J. Food insecurity: Limitations of emergency food resources for our patients. J. Urban Health 2013, 90, 552–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Goldblatt, A.; Felix, R.; Chotai, V.; Fleger, M. Final Report: Systemic Barriers to Housing Initiative; Housing Support Services Hub: Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2011; Available online: https://www.homelesshub.ca/resource/final-report-systemic-barriers-housing-initiative (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Shartal, S.; Cowan, L.; Khandor, E.; German, B. Failing the Homeless: Barriers in the Ontario Disability Support Program for Homeless People with Disabilities; Street Health: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2004; Available online: https://www.homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/a-2003-09-235.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- McKeary, M.; Newbold, B. Barriers to care: The challenges for Canadian refugees and their health care providers. J. Refug. Stud. 2010, 23, 523–545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hwang, S.W.; Windrim, P.M.; Svoboda, T.J.; Sullivan, W.F. Physician payment for the care of homeless people. CMAJ 2000, 163, 170–171. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Shepherd, S.; Low, H.; Meisner, A. The 2003 Toronto Report Card on Housing and Homelessness; City of Toronto: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2003; Available online: https://www.homelesshub.ca/resource/2003-toronto-report-card-housing-and-homelessness (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Kopec, A.; Cowper-Smith, Y. Guelph-Wellington Taskforce for Poverty Elimination: Avenues for Creating an ID Bank; Community Engaged Scholarship Institute: Guelph, ON, Canada, 2016; Available online: https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/9594/Kopec_Cowpersmith_AvenuesForCreatingAnIDBank_2016.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Lazaruk, S. Greater Vancouver food-bank users will soon need to prove low-income status. Vancouver Sun, 31 March 2020. Available online: https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/starting-april-1-food-bank-users-will-need-to-prove-low-income-status-and-address/(accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Linton, B. Food bank deals with location change. The Chronicle Journal, 30 March 2020. Available online: https://www.chroniclejournal.com/news/local/food-bank-deals-with-location-change/article_b37c246a-729c-11ea-bc08-af7ea613287d.html(accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Pickrell, A. Sudbury food bank updates guidelines for new users. CTV News, 2 April 2020. Available online: https://northernontario.ctvnews.ca/sudbury-food-bank-updates-guidelines-for-new-users-1.4879949(accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Hamilton, W. Can’t go home: No ID strands Indigenous man on Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. CBC, 8 April 2020. Available online: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/indigenous-man-stranded-dtes-1.5504544(accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Silcoff, S.; Cardoso, T. Ottawa shuts Service Canada centres after employees refuse to work. The Globe and Mail, 26 March 2020. Available online: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-ottawa-considers-shutting-down-service-canada-centres-as-employees/?utm_source(accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Burnett, K.; Sanders, C.; Skinner, K. The Challenges of Accessing Personal Identification in Northwestern Ontario. In Proceedings of the Keynote Address presented to Kinna-aweya Legal Clinic Annual General Meeting, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada, 26 October 2019. [Google Scholar]
- National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (NCTR). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation; University of Manitoba: Winnipeg, MB, Canada, 2015; Available online: http://nctr.ca/reports.php (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Statistics Canada. Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit, Part 3 Living arrangements of Aboriginal Children. In National Household Survey, 2011; Minister of Industry: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2013; Available online: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011001-eng.cfm#a7 (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Province Reports 1st Decrease in Child Welfare Numbers in 15 Years (25 September 2018). Available online: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/manitoba-cfs-decrease-1.4837846 (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Canadian Press. Child Apprehension Laws to be Amended so Kids can’t be Taken Because of Poverty (7 November 2018). Available online: https://globalnews.ca/news/4638801/child-apprehension-laws-to-be-amended-so-kids-cant-be-taken-because-of-poverty/ (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- Gaetz, S. The struggle to end homelessness in Canada: How we created the crisis, and how we can end it. Open Health Serv. Policy J. 2010, 3, 21–26. [Google Scholar]
- O’Grady, B.; Gaetz, S.; Buccieri, K. Can I See Your ID? The Policing of Youth Homelessness in Toronto; JFCY & Homeless Hub: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2011; Available online: https://www.homelesshub.ca/CanISeeYourID (accessed on 12 April 2020).
- O’Brien, K.; Colquhoun, H.; Levac, D.; Baxter, L.; Tricco, A.C.; Straus, S.; Wickerson, L.; Nayar, A.; Moher, D.; O’Malley, L. Advancing scoping study methodology: A web-based survey and consultation of perceptions on terminology, definition and methodological steps. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2016, 16, 305. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pauly, B. Harm reduction through a social justice lens. Int. J. Drug Policy 2008, 19, 4–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Main Terms||Expanded Terms|
|Identification||(“Photo identification” OR “personal identification” OR “government-issued identification” OR “civil identification” OR “birth identification” OR “birth certificat *” OR “birth registration” OR “photo ID”) AND|
|Barriers and facilitators||((barrier * OR challenge *) OR (facilitator * OR opportunit *))|
|Peer-reviewed journal article||22||71.0|
|Other (not specified, theoretical)||6||19.4|
|Mixed qualitative quantitative||2||6.4|
|Target population a:|
|Homeless people in general||11||12.9|
|Homeless youth specifically||4||9.7|
|Homeless adults specifically||3||9.7|
|Injection drug users||2||6.5|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sanders, C.; Burnett, K.; Lam, S.; Hassan, M.; Skinner, K. “You Need ID to Get ID”: A Scoping Review of Personal Identification as a Barrier to and Facilitator of the Social Determinants of Health in North America. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4227. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124227
Sanders C, Burnett K, Lam S, Hassan M, Skinner K. “You Need ID to Get ID”: A Scoping Review of Personal Identification as a Barrier to and Facilitator of the Social Determinants of Health in North America. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12):4227. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124227Chicago/Turabian Style
Sanders, Chris, Kristin Burnett, Steven Lam, Mehdia Hassan, and Kelly Skinner. 2020. "“You Need ID to Get ID”: A Scoping Review of Personal Identification as a Barrier to and Facilitator of the Social Determinants of Health in North America" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 12: 4227. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124227