Next Article in Journal
Association between Diabetes and Cognitive Function among People over 45 Years Old in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Outpatient Rehabilitation Service in Preventing the Deterioration of the Care-Needs Level Among Japanese Older Adults Availing Long-Term Care Insurance: A Propensity Score Matched Retrospective Study

Refugee Status as a Possible Risk Factor for Childhood Enuresis

Faculty of Medicine, J. J. Strossmayer University, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Department of Pediatrics, Vinkovci General County Hospital, 32100 Vinkovci, Croatia
Department of Urology, Sisters of Mercy University Hospital Center, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Special Hospital for Protection of Children with Neurodevelopmental and Motor Disorders, Goljak, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Zagreb Children’s Hospital, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1293;
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
This study investigated the influence of refugee status on the occurrence of enuresis. It was performed among school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in the Vukovarsko-srijemska County (eastern Croatia), which had many displaced persons and refugees (mostly women and children) in the 1990s due to the wars in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. A specially designed questionnaire (about the child’s age and gender, the child’s enuresis history and that of the parents, and data on parental refugee status in childhood) was completed by one of the parents. Adequate data were collected for 3046 children. The prevalence of enuresis among the studied children was quite low (2.3%) but the prevalence distribution according to gender, the decline by age, and the higher odds ratio for paternal enuresis were in line with the results of other studies. The prevalence of parental enuresis in childhood was higher than their children’s enuresis (mothers: 5.8%, fathers: 3.6%, p < 0.001), and significantly higher among parents who had been refugees (mothers: p = 0.001, fathers: p = 0.04). Parental refugee status had no influence on the children’s enuresis. The results suggest that refugee status is a risk factor for the occurrence of enuresis in childhood. View Full-Text
Keywords: enuresis; child; prevalence; refugees enuresis; child; prevalence; refugees
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jurković, M.; Tomašković, I.; Tomašković, M.; Smital Zore, B.; Pavić, I.; Roić, A.C. Refugee Status as a Possible Risk Factor for Childhood Enuresis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1293.

AMA Style

Jurković M, Tomašković I, Tomašković M, Smital Zore B, Pavić I, Roić AC. Refugee Status as a Possible Risk Factor for Childhood Enuresis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(7):1293.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jurković, Marija, Igor Tomašković, Mirna Tomašković, Branka Smital Zore, Ivan Pavić, and Andrea C. Roić 2019. "Refugee Status as a Possible Risk Factor for Childhood Enuresis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 7: 1293.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop