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Article

Raising Children with Poor School Performance: Parenting Styles and Short- and Long-Term Consequences for Adolescent and Adult Development

Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibáñez, 21., 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071089
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
This study examines the correlates of authoritative (warmth and strictness), indulgent (warmth but not strictness), authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting with short- and long-term socialization outcomes in adolescents and adults, with and without poor school performance during adolescence. Short- and long-term socialization outcomes were captured by multidimensional self-esteem (academic/professional, emotional, and family), psychological maturity (self-competence, social competence, and empathy), and emotional maladjustment (nervousness, emotional instability, and hostility). Participants (1195 female and 874 male) consisted of a community sample of adolescents (n = 602), young adults (n = 610), middle-aged adults (n = 469) and older adults (n = 388). Design was a 4 × 3 × 2 × 4 MANOVA (parenting style × school performance × sex × age). Results indicated that the relationship between parenting styles and children’s socialization outcomes does not vary as a function of school performance. The link between parenting styles and socialization outcomes shares a common short- and long- term pattern in adolescents and adults: Indulgent parenting was related to equal or even better socialization outcomes than authoritative parenting, whereas authoritarian and neglectful styles were associated with the worst socialization outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenting styles; school performance; adolescence; adult development; culture parenting styles; school performance; adolescence; adult development; culture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, O.F.; Serra, E. Raising Children with Poor School Performance: Parenting Styles and Short- and Long-Term Consequences for Adolescent and Adult Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071089

AMA Style

Garcia OF, Serra E. Raising Children with Poor School Performance: Parenting Styles and Short- and Long-Term Consequences for Adolescent and Adult Development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(7):1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia, Oscar F., and Emilia Serra. 2019. "Raising Children with Poor School Performance: Parenting Styles and Short- and Long-Term Consequences for Adolescent and Adult Development" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 7: 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071089

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