Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi
AbstractMany people around the globe prefer bottled water especially in developing countries, where tap water is not drinkable. This study investigated the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Lilongwe city, Malawi. Compliance with Malawi Standards (MS) 560 (2004) for natural mineral water, MS 699 (2004) for bottled water and the World Health Organisation guidelines for drinking water were examined. Bottled water from different 12 brands was purchased from local stores and analysed for its pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), EC, turbidity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, NO3−, Cl−, F−, SO42−, hardness, alkalinity, and Escherichia coli. A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) resulted in two clusters in which most of the brands (92%, n = 12) belonged to one group. The two clusters and significant differences (ANOVA p < 0.05) in chemical compositions among the brands were attributed to the variations in the water source and the treatment processes. The results showed that 10 brands did not comply with the MS 699 (2004) turbidity standard (1 NTU) and the pH of one of the brands was below the minimum MS 699 (2004) standard of 6.50. This research showed that 12 brands had bottle labelling errors and discrepancies in chemical composition. The article highlighted the need for a strict inspection from the responsible governmental ministry to improve water quality and to adjust water bottles’ labels according to water characteristics. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Chidya, R.C.G.; Singano, L.; Chitedze, I.; Mourad, K.A. Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 951.
Chidya RCG, Singano L, Chitedze I, Mourad KA. Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(6):951.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chidya, Russel C.G.; Singano, Lazarus; Chitedze, Isaac; Mourad, Khaldoon A. 2019. "Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 6: 951.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.