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Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi

1
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Water Resources Management and Development, Mzuzu University, P/Bag 201 Mzuzu, Malawi
2
Department of Agricultural Research Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Box 158 Lilongwe, Malawi
3
Faculty of Science, Technology and Innovations, Department of Energy Systems, Mzuzu University, P/Bag 201 Mzuzu Malawi
4
Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060951
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract

Many people around the globe prefer bottled water especially in developing countries, where tap water is not drinkable. This study investigated the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Lilongwe city, Malawi. Compliance with Malawi Standards (MS) 560 (2004) for natural mineral water, MS 699 (2004) for bottled water and the World Health Organisation guidelines for drinking water were examined. Bottled water from different 12 brands was purchased from local stores and analysed for its pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), EC, turbidity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, NO3, Cl, F, SO42−, hardness, alkalinity, and Escherichia coli. A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) resulted in two clusters in which most of the brands (92%, n = 12) belonged to one group. The two clusters and significant differences (ANOVA p < 0.05) in chemical compositions among the brands were attributed to the variations in the water source and the treatment processes. The results showed that 10 brands did not comply with the MS 699 (2004) turbidity standard (1 NTU) and the pH of one of the brands was below the minimum MS 699 (2004) standard of 6.50. This research showed that 12 brands had bottle labelling errors and discrepancies in chemical composition. The article highlighted the need for a strict inspection from the responsible governmental ministry to improve water quality and to adjust water bottles’ labels according to water characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: physico-chemical; microbiological; water quality; food safety; Lilongwe; Malawi physico-chemical; microbiological; water quality; food safety; Lilongwe; Malawi
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Chidya, R.C.G.; Singano, L.; Chitedze, I.; Mourad, K.A. Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 951.

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