Next Article in Journal
Microclimatic Impact Analysis of Multi-Dimensional Indicators of Streetscape Fabric in the Medium Spatial Zone
Previous Article in Journal
Depressive Symptoms After PCB Exposure: Hypotheses for Underlying Pathomechanisms via the Thyroid and Dopamine System
Open AccessArticle

Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi

1
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Water Resources Management and Development, Mzuzu University, P/Bag 201 Mzuzu, Malawi
2
Department of Agricultural Research Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Box 158 Lilongwe, Malawi
3
Faculty of Science, Technology and Innovations, Department of Energy Systems, Mzuzu University, P/Bag 201 Mzuzu Malawi
4
Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060951
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
Many people around the globe prefer bottled water especially in developing countries, where tap water is not drinkable. This study investigated the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Lilongwe city, Malawi. Compliance with Malawi Standards (MS) 560 (2004) for natural mineral water, MS 699 (2004) for bottled water and the World Health Organisation guidelines for drinking water were examined. Bottled water from different 12 brands was purchased from local stores and analysed for its pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), EC, turbidity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, NO3, Cl, F, SO42−, hardness, alkalinity, and Escherichia coli. A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) resulted in two clusters in which most of the brands (92%, n = 12) belonged to one group. The two clusters and significant differences (ANOVA p < 0.05) in chemical compositions among the brands were attributed to the variations in the water source and the treatment processes. The results showed that 10 brands did not comply with the MS 699 (2004) turbidity standard (1 NTU) and the pH of one of the brands was below the minimum MS 699 (2004) standard of 6.50. This research showed that 12 brands had bottle labelling errors and discrepancies in chemical composition. The article highlighted the need for a strict inspection from the responsible governmental ministry to improve water quality and to adjust water bottles’ labels according to water characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: physico-chemical; microbiological; water quality; food safety; Lilongwe; Malawi physico-chemical; microbiological; water quality; food safety; Lilongwe; Malawi
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chidya, R.C.G.; Singano, L.; Chitedze, I.; Mourad, K.A. Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060951

AMA Style

Chidya RCG, Singano L, Chitedze I, Mourad KA. Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(6):951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060951

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chidya, Russel C.G.; Singano, Lazarus; Chitedze, Isaac; Mourad, Khaldoon A. 2019. "Standards Compliance and Health Implications of Bottled Water in Malawi" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 6: 951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060951

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop