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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060920

Factors Associated with Levels of Latrine Completion and Consequent Latrine Use in Northern Ghana

1
Department of Environmental and Social Science Research, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Urberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract

Open defecation is still a major health problem in developing countries. While enormous empirical research exists on latrine coverage, little is known about households’ latrine construction and usage behaviours. Using field observation and survey data collected from 1523 households in 132 communities in northern Ghana after 16 months of implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), this paper assessed the factors associated with latrine completion and latrine use. The survey tool was structured to conform to the Risk, Attitude, Norms, Ability and Self-regulation (RANAS) model. In the analysis, we classified households into three based on their latrine completion level, and conducted descriptive statistics for statistical correlation in level of latrine construction and latrine use behaviour. The findings suggest that open defecation among households reduces as latrine construction approaches completion. Although the study did not find socio-demographic differences of household to be significantly associated with level of latrine completion, we found that social context is a significant determinant of households’ latrine completion decisions. The study therefore emphasises the need for continuous sensitisation and social marketing to ensure latrine completion by households at lower levels of construction, and the sustained use of latrines by households. View Full-Text
Keywords: open defecation; latrine completion; latrine use; behaviour change; RANAS; CLTS; Ghana open defecation; latrine completion; latrine use; behaviour change; RANAS; CLTS; Ghana
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nunbogu, A.M.; Harter, M.; Mosler, H.-J. Factors Associated with Levels of Latrine Completion and Consequent Latrine Use in Northern Ghana. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 920.

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