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Open AccessArticle

Primary Cooking Fuel Choice and Respiratory Health Outcomes among Women in Charge of Household Cooking in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Cross-Sectional Study

1
Département de santé publique, Université Ouaga 1 Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, Zogona, Ouagadougou 03 BP 7021, Burkina Faso
2
Centre de Recherche en Santé Environnementale et Santé au Travail, Ecole de Santé Publique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
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Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (UFR/SDS), Université Ouaga 1 Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, Zogona, Ouagadougou 03 BP 7021, Burkina Faso
4
Service de pneumo-phtisiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou 03 BP 7022, Burkina Faso
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061040
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 22 March 2019
Background: Approximately 3 billion people, worldwide, rely primarily on biomass for cooking. This study aimed to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms among women in charge of household cooking and the type of fuel used for cooking. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 1705 women that were randomly selected, completed the survey. We also performed a bivariate and a multivariate analysis to verify the possible associations between respiratory symptoms in women in charge of household cooking and the type of cooking fuel used. Results: Dry cough, breathing difficulties, and throat irritation frequencies were statistically high in biomass fuel users when compared to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) users. It was also the case for some chronic respiratory symptoms, such as sputum production, shortness of breath, wheezing, wheezing with dyspnea, wheezing without a cold, waking up with shortness of breath, waking up with coughing attacks, and waking up with breathing difficulty. After adjustment for the respondents’ and households’ characteristics; dry cough, breathing difficulties, sneezing, nose tingling, throat irritation, chronic sputum production, wheezing, wheezing with dyspnea, wheezing without a cold, waking up with shortness of breath, waking up with coughing attacks, and waking up with breathing difficulty were symptoms that remained associated to biomass fuel compared to LPG. Women who used charcoal reported the highest proportion of all the chronic respiratory symptoms compared to the firewood users. However, this difference was not statistically significant except for the wheezing, waking up with coughing attacks, and waking up with breath difficulty, after adjustment. Conclusion: Exposure to biomass smoke is responsible for respiratory health problems in women. Charcoal, which is often considered as a clean fuel compared to other biomass fuels and often recommended as an alternative to firewood, also presents health risks, including increased respiratory morbidity in women. Effective and efficient energy policies are needed to accelerate the transition to clean and sustainable energies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooking fuel; biomass; respiratory health; women; Burkina Faso cooking fuel; biomass; respiratory health; women; Burkina Faso
MDPI and ACS Style

Sana, A.; Meda, N.; Badoum, G.; Kafando, B.; Bouland, C. Primary Cooking Fuel Choice and Respiratory Health Outcomes among Women in Charge of Household Cooking in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1040. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061040

AMA Style

Sana A, Meda N, Badoum G, Kafando B, Bouland C. Primary Cooking Fuel Choice and Respiratory Health Outcomes among Women in Charge of Household Cooking in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(6):1040. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sana, Adama; Meda, Nicolas; Badoum, Gisèle; Kafando, Benoit; Bouland, Catherine. 2019. "Primary Cooking Fuel Choice and Respiratory Health Outcomes among Women in Charge of Household Cooking in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Cross-Sectional Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 6: 1040. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061040

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