Next Article in Journal
Analyses on the Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Water Quality in a Seagoing River Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study in the Duliujian River, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Changes in Jumping and Throwing Performances in Age-Group Athletes Competing in the European Masters Athletics Championships between 1978 and 2017
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Environmental Issues with an Application of Civil Complaints: The Case of Shiheung City, Republic of Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Selected Healthy Behaviors and Quality of Life in People Who Practice Combat Sports and Martial Arts
Open AccessArticle

Celebrating 40 Years of Ironman: How the Champions Perform

1
Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, 71966-700 Brasília, Brazil
2
Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA
3
Physical Education Department, Goias State University, Quirinópolis, 75860-000 GO, Brazil
4
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, 18450 Nikaia, Greece
5
Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
6
Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061019
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
We aimed to determine which discipline had the greater performance improvements in the history of Ironman triathlon in Hawaii and also which discipline had the greater influence in overall race time. Data from 1983 to 2018 of the top three women and men of each year who competed in the Ironman World Championship were included. In addition to exploratory data analyses, linear regressions between split times and years of achievement were performed. Further, a stepwise multiple linear regression was applied using total race time as the dependent variable and split times as the independent variables. Both women and men significantly improved their performances from 1983 to 2018 in the Ironman World Championship. Swimming had the largest difference in improvements between men and women (3.0% versus 12.1%, respectively). A negative and significant decrease in each discipline was identified for both women and men, with cycling being the discipline with the greatest reduction. The results from the stepwise multiple regression indicated that cycling was the discipline with the highest influence on overall race time for both sexes. Based on the findings of this study, cycling seems to be the Ironman triathlon discipline that most improved overall race times and is also the discipline with the greatest influence on the overall race time of elite men and women in the Ironman World Championship. View Full-Text
Keywords: triathlon; cycling; running; swimming; endurance triathlon; cycling; running; swimming; endurance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Barbosa, L.P.; Sousa, C.V.; Sales, M.M.; Olher, R.R.; Aguiar, S.S.; Santos, P.A.; Tiozzo, E.; Simões, H.G.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Knechtle, B. Celebrating 40 Years of Ironman: How the Champions Perform. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1019.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop