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Open AccessArticle

Geospatial Distributions of Groundwater Quality in Gedaref State Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI)

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Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, high-tech zone, Chengdu 611756, China
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Department of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Petroleum & Minerals, Al Neelain University, Khartoum 11121, Sudan
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School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611756, China
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Key Laboratory of Digital Earth, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 9 Dengzhuang South Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100094, China
5
Water Environmental Sanitation Project (WES), Gedaref State Water Corporation, Gedaref 32214, Sudan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050731
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
The observation of groundwater quality elements is essential for understanding the classification and distribution of drinking water. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), are intensive tools for the performance and analysis of spatial datum associated with groundwater sources control. In this study, groundwater quality parameters were observed in three different aquifers including: sandstone, alluvium and basalt. These aquifers are the primary source of national drinking water and partly for agricultural activity in El Faw, El Raha (Fw-Rh), El Qalabat and El Quresha (Qa-Qu) localities in the southern part of Gedaref State in eastern Sudan. The aquifers have been overworked intensively as the main source of indigenous water supply in the study area. The interpolation methods were used to demonstrate the facies pattern and Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) of the groundwater in the research area. The GIS interpolation tool was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters and DWQI in the area. Forty samples were assembled and investigated for the analysis of major cations and anions. The groundwater in this research is controlled by sodium and bicarbonate ions that defined the composition of the water type to be Na HCO3. However, from the plots of piper diagram; the samples result revealed (40%) Na-Mg-HCO3 and (35%) Na-HCO3 water types. The outcome of the analysis reveals that several groundwater samples have been found to be suitable for drinking purposes in Fa-Rh and Qa-Qu areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquifers; drinking water quality index DWQI; spatial distribution; piper diagram; interpolation methods aquifers; drinking water quality index DWQI; spatial distribution; piper diagram; interpolation methods
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MDPI and ACS Style

A. Elubid, B.; Huang, T.; H. Ahmed, E.; Zhao, J.; M. Elhag, K.; Abbass, W.; M. Babiker, M. Geospatial Distributions of Groundwater Quality in Gedaref State Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 731.

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