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Open AccessArticle

Trends in Opioid Misuse among Marijuana Users and Non-Users in the U.S. from 2007–2017

1
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
2
Department of Social Medicine, Population and Public Health, University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, Riverside, CA 92501, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224585
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Prescription-opioid misus e continues to be a significant health concern in the United States. The relationship between marijuana use and prescription-opioid misuse is not clear from the extant literature. This study examined national trends in prescription-opioid misuse among marijuana users and non-users using the 2007–2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Cochran–Armitage tests were used to assess the statistical significance of changes in the yearly prevalence of prescription-opioid misuse and marijuana use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between prescription-opioid and marijuana use adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. From 2007 to 2017, marijuana use increased, while prescription-opioid misuse declined. Larger declines in prescription-opioid misuse were found among marijuana users than non-users. Marijuana ever-use was significantly associated with prescription-opioid misuse. Specifically, marijuana ever-users had higher odds of prescription-opioid misuse (ever-misuse [OR: 3.04; 95% CI, 2.68–3.43]; past-year misuse [OR: 3.44; 95% CI, 3.00–3.94]; and past-month misuse [OR: 4.50; 95% CI, 3.35–6.05]) compared to marijuana never-users. Similar results were found for the association of past-year and past-month marijuana use with prescription-opioid misuse. This study provides data on trends and associations about opioid misuse among marijuana users and non-users in a changing social environment of drug use in the United States. Future research should consider whether there is a causal relationship between marijuana use and prescription opioid misuse. View Full-Text
Keywords: prescription opioid misuse; marijuana use; prescription drugs; substance abuse prescription opioid misuse; marijuana use; prescription drugs; substance abuse
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Azagba, S.; Shan, L.; Manzione, L.; Qeadan, F.; Wolfson, M. Trends in Opioid Misuse among Marijuana Users and Non-Users in the U.S. from 2007–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4585.

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