Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Health Human Resources Policies in Primary Care Nursing: A Qualitative Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatial Variability in the Effect of High Ambient Temperature on Mortality: An Analysis at Municipality Level within the Greater Athens Area
Previous Article in Journal
Inter-Basin Water Transfer Supply Chain Coordination with Ramsey Pricing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cold Weather Conditions and Risk of Hypothermia Among People Experiencing Homelessness: Implications for Prevention Strategies
Open AccessReview

Global Associations of Air Pollution and Conjunctivitis Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China
2
Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
3
Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193652
Received: 25 August 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 25 September 2019 / Published: 28 September 2019
(1) Background: As the most common eye disease diagnosed in emergency departments, conjunctivitis has caused serious health and economic burdens worldwide. However, whether air pollution may be a risk factor for conjunctivitis is still inconsistent among current evidence. (2) Methods: We searched the literature on the relationship between air pollution and conjunctivitis in multiple English databases before 18 March 2019. Meta-analysis, meta-regression, and funnel plots were used to integrate the data, identify the sources of bias, and determine the publication bias, respectively. (3) Results: A total of 2450 papers were found, 12 of which were finally included. The pooled relative risk for each 10 μg/m3 increase of air pollution on conjunctivitis was 1.0006 (95%CI: 0.9993–1.0019) for CO, 1.0287 (1.0120–1.0457) for NO2, 1.0089 (1.0030–1.0149) for O3, 1.0004 (0.9976–1.0032) for PM2.5, 1.0033 (0.9982–1.0083) for PM10, and 1.0045 (0.9908–1.0185) for SO2. In the subgroup, PM2.5 and O3 had a greater impact on conjunctivitis risk in women than in men, and people <18 years old than those ≥18 years old. Relative humidity significantly modified the risk of O3 on conjunctivitis (p = 0.023), explaining 45% of the between-study heterogeneity. (4) Conclusion: Globally, air pollution has considerable health risks for conjunctivitis. Females and the youth were more vulnerable to PM2.5, NO2, and O3. Reductions of air pollution levels are still warranted to protect the vulnerable populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; conjunctivitis disease; vulnerable populations; systematic review and meta-analysis air pollution; conjunctivitis disease; vulnerable populations; systematic review and meta-analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://zenodo.org/
    Description: Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at https://zenodo.org/, Figure A1: Funnel plot of PM10 and O3 on conjunctivitis using Trim-fill method, Table A1: The search strategies used in the review, Table A2: Supplementary information of the included literature, Table A3: The quality assessment of the included literature, Table A4: Sensitivity meta-analysis using the leave-one-out method.
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, R.; Yang, J.; Zhang, C.; Li, B.; Bergmann, S.; Zeng, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, B. Global Associations of Air Pollution and Conjunctivitis Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3652. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193652

AMA Style

Chen R, Yang J, Zhang C, Li B, Bergmann S, Zeng F, Wang H, Wang B. Global Associations of Air Pollution and Conjunctivitis Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3652. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193652

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Renchao; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Chunlin; Li, Bixia; Bergmann, Stéphanie; Zeng, Fangfang; Wang, Hao; Wang, Boguang. 2019. "Global Associations of Air Pollution and Conjunctivitis Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 19: 3652. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193652

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop