Next Article in Journal
Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Chronic Silver Nanoparticle Exposure Induces Cell Division Defects in Human Epithelial Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring the Potential Health Risks Faced by Waste Pickers on Landfills in South Africa: A Socio-Ecological Perspective
Article Menu
Issue 11 (June-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Paraquat Preferentially Induces Apoptosis of Late Stage Effector Lymphocyte and Impairs Memory Immune Response in Mice

School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112060
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
  |  
PDF [1125 KB, uploaded 12 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Paraquat (PQ) is a toxic non-selective herbicide. To date, the effect of PQ on memory immune response is still unknown. We investigated the impact of PQ on memory immune response. Adult C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg/kg PQ, 20 mg/kg PQ or vehicle control every three days for two weeks. A single injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) at day four after the initial PQ treatment was used to induce a primary immune response; a second KLH challenge was performed at three months post the first KLH immunization to induce a secondary immune response. In steady state, treatment with 20 mg/kg PQ reduced the level of serum total IgG, but not that of IgM; treatment with 20 mg/kg PQ decreased the number of effector and memory lymphocytes, but not naïve or inactivated lymphocytes. During the primary immune response to KLH, treatment with 20 mg/kg PQ did not influence the proliferation of lymphocytes or expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Instead, treatment with 20 mg/kg PQ increased the apoptosis of lymphocytes at late stage, but not early stage of the primary immune response. During the secondary immune response to KLH, treatment with 20 mg/kg PQ reduced the serum anti-KLH IgG and KLH-responsive CD4 T cells and B cells. Moreover, effector or activated lymphocytes were more sensitive to PQ-induced apoptosis in vitro. Treatment with 2 mg/kg PQ did not impact memory immune response to KLH. Thus, treatment with 20 mg/kg PQ increased apoptosis of late stage effector cells to yield less memory cells and thereafter impair memory immune response, providing a novel understanding of the immunotoxicity of PQ. View Full-Text
Keywords: paraquat; memory immune response; keyhole limpet hemocyanin; apoptosis paraquat; memory immune response; keyhole limpet hemocyanin; apoptosis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shao, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, F.; Chang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Z. Paraquat Preferentially Induces Apoptosis of Late Stage Effector Lymphocyte and Impairs Memory Immune Response in Mice. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2060.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top