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Metabolic Outcomes in Southern Italian Preadolescents Residing Near an Industrial Complex: The Role of Residential Location and Socioeconomic Status

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
3
Department of Biology, Morrissey College of Arts and Sciences, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, PA 02467, USA
4
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
5
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
6
Department of Prevention, Local Health Authority of Taranto, 74121 Taranto, Italy
7
Local Health Authority of Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy
8
Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112036
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract

Evidence suggests that environmental exposures and socioeconomic factors may interact to produce metabolic changes in children. We assessed the influence of residential location and socioeconomic status (SES) on pediatric body mass index (BMI) Z-score and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. Participants included 214 children aged 6–11 years who live near a large industrial complex in Taranto, Italy. Participants were grouped into residential zones based on the distance between their home address and the complex periphery (Zone 1: 0.000–4.999 km, Zone 2: 5.000–9.999 km, Zone 3: 10.000–15.000 km). BMI Z-scores were calculated via World Health Organization (WHO) pediatric reference curves. FBG was obtained via venous blood sampling. Closer residential location to the industrial complex on the order of 5.000 km was significantly associated with worsened metabolic outcomes, particularly in female children. Zone 1 participants had higher BMI-adjusted FBG than Zone 2 and 3 participants (p < 0.05 versus Zone 2; p < 0.01 versus Zone 3). SES did not significantly influence BMI-adjusted FBG. Moreover, BMI Z-scores indicated high rates of overweight (22.0%) and obesity (22.9%) in the cohort. BMI Z-score was not significantly associated with SES or residential zone but was negatively associated with maternal education level (p < 0.05). These results offer new evidence that residing near industrial activity may predict adverse effects on child metabolic health. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; socioeconomic status; residential location; industrial; air pollution; body mass index; BMI; blood glucose; obesity children; socioeconomic status; residential location; industrial; air pollution; body mass index; BMI; blood glucose; obesity
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Bansal, E.; Placidi, D.; Carver, S.; Renzetti, S.; Giorgino, A.; Cagna, G.; Zoni, S.; Fedrighi, C.; Montemurro, M.; Oppini, M.; Conversano, M.; Guazzetti, S.; Wright, R.O.; Smith, D.; Claudio, L.; Lucchini, R.G. Metabolic Outcomes in Southern Italian Preadolescents Residing Near an Industrial Complex: The Role of Residential Location and Socioeconomic Status. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2036.

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